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11/229. Arteriovenous communication in the orbit.

    arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are anomalous communications between arterial and venous systems without interposed capillaries. These lesions are rarely entirely intraorbital. A case of an arteriovenous communication between branches of the internal and external carotid arterial circulations and the ophthalmic veins located within the orbit is reported. Treatment with embolization resulted in a branch retinal artery occlusion. Attempted direct arterial occlusion of a dural-based fistula of the eye is a risky procedure. If embolized, AVMs should probably be approached from the venous side, if at all.
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12/229. Type IV spinal arteriovenous malformation in association with familial pulmonary vascular malformations: case report.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Type IVc arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) of the spinal cord consist of multiple high-flow feeding vessels, and they often present a challenging management situation. Their location is intradural and extramedullary, and they are rare malformations that are difficult to treat owing to the risk of thrombosis of the anterior spinal artery. The authors report a case of Type IVc spinal AVM in a patient with a family history of three siblings with pulmonary AVMs. Spinal AVMs have been reported to be associated with inherited syndromes such as familial cutaneous hemangiomas and Kartagener's syndrome, but an association with pulmonary AVMs has not previously been described. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 27-year-old man presented with sudden onset of occipital headache with cervical radiation while weightlifting. Results of computed tomography of the brain were normal, but lumbar puncture revealed a subarachnoid hemorrhage. The patient had a 1-year history of a neurogenic bladder and exhibited marked left calf muscle wasting. INTERVENTION: The patient underwent spinal magnetic resonance imaging, which revealed the AVM in the conus region. Selective spinal angiography was performed for diagnostic purposes. A laminectomy was performed, and the vessels feeding the AVM were clipped, as was the fistula. CONCLUSION: The patient remained neurologically stable, and angiography confirmed obliteration of the AVM. This is the first case report of a patient with a spinal AVM who had multiple siblings with pulmonary malformations or AVMs.
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keywords = fistula
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13/229. Multiple coronary arteriovenous fistulae.

    A case with multiple congenital coronary arteriovenous fistulae is reported. The right coronary artery was communicating with the right ventricle. The left coronary artery was entering directly into the pulmonary trunk and two terminal branches of the anterior descending into the left ventricle. The direct communication of the left coronary artery without interposition of an accessory artery or a circoid plexus is met for the first time.
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ranking = 5
keywords = fistula
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14/229. Histologic change of arteriovenous malformations of the face and scalp after free flap transfer.

    In three patients with long-standing vascular malformations of the face and scalp, radial forearm free flaps were transferred after a near-total excision of the lesion. All patients had typical high-flow malformations with thrill and bruit. The onset and progression of the malformations were analyzed through clinical and histologic studies. After free flap transfer, the vascular malformations were followed up grossly and histologically for between 4 and 9 years. There was no recurrence of arteriovenous malformation after free flap transfer. The portion of the residual lesion adjacent to the transferred free flap disappeared, and the remaining discoloration also vanished grossly. Histologic comparison of immediate postoperative and 4-month postoperative specimens from the margin and residual lesion using victoria blue staining showed that the typical preoperative findings for arteriovenous malformation-an intermingling of thick-walled vessels with abundant elastic fibers and thin-walled vessels without elastic fibers-had undergone change, resulting in the disappearance of the thick-walled vessels and leaving only homogeneous, thin-walled vasculature. The highly vascularized free flap, which does not contain abnormal fistulas, impacted the histologic change of the arteriovenous malformation by blocking the vicious cycle of ischemia and anatomic replacement of disfigured skin and subcutaneous tissues.
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keywords = fistula
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15/229. Thoracic arteriovenous fistula: venous connection to right iliac vein.

    A 5-year-old boy had clinical, cardiac catheterization, and operative findings of a thoracic arteriovenous fistula arising from the right subclavian artery. The venous connection was to the paravertebral plexus with eventual drainage into the inferior vena cava through the right common iliac vein. To our knowledge, this type of fistula has not been reported previously and is believed to represent embryological defects of the first or second posterior intercostal arteries as well as maldevelopment of the venous connections of azygos vein to the superior vena cava, which resulted in the observed caudal venous pathways becoming operative.
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ranking = 6
keywords = fistula
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16/229. liver transplantation for hepatic arteriovenous malformation with high-output cardiac failure in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia: hemodynamic study.

    We describe a case of orthotopic liver transplantation used as a therapeutic method to correct high output cardiac failure related to a liver arteriovenous fistula due to hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. Detailed hemodynamic changes as they occurred during liver transplantation are described.
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ranking = 1
keywords = fistula
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17/229. Vascular orientation by intra-arterial dye injection during spinal arteriovenous malformation surgery.

    OBJECTIVE: Rich and complicated vascular structures on the spinal cord often interfere with obliteration of a spinal arteriovenous malformation (AVM). Vascular orientation during spinal AVM surgery is essential. The authors recently performed six consecutive spinal AVM surgeries in five patients (two with perimedullary AVMs, and three with dural arteriovenous fistulae) with the aid of intra-arterial injection of dye (indigo carmine). methods: Two representative cases are described. A microcatheter was placed preoperatively in the artery of interest. Subsequent to the exposure of the vascular complex, a 1-ml injection of indigo carmine (2 mg/ml) clearly demonstrated the feeding arteries and the draining veins around the AVM or dural arteriovenous fistula. RESULTS: One patient had repeat surgery because of incomplete obliteration of the AVM owing to migration of the catheter. All patients, except one who had temporary postoperative deterioration and persistent neurological deficits, had good surgical outcomes, however. No apparent side effects caused by the dye were reported. CONCLUSION: The assistance system for spinal AVM surgery is easy and safe and can be applied in other surgical institutions.
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ranking = 2
keywords = fistula
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18/229. Venous congestion is a major cause of neurological deterioration in spinal arteriovenous malformations.

    OBJECTIVE: Although venous congestion is considered to be a major cause of progressive myelopathy in patients with spinal dural arteriovenous fistulae (DAVFs), the neurological deterioration in patients with spinal intradural arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) has been attributed to hemorrhage or to vascular steal. To reexamine this theory, we analyzed our own cases of spinal vascular diseases. methods: In 24 patients with spinal vascular diseases, those who demonstrated progressive myelopathy with T2 hyperintensity in the spinal cord on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were diagnosed as patients with congestive myelopathy. We further examined the clinical courses, MRI findings, and reversibility of these cases. RESULTS: Venous congestion was judged to be a cause of neurological deterioration in 13 patients (7 DAVFs, 6 intradural AVMs). The T2 signals on these patients' MRI scans were located in the center and extended over several levels not corresponding to distribution of ischemia due to arterial steal. Of the patients who were diagnosed with congestive myelopathy, no differences between those with DAVFs and those with intradural AVMs were apparent in terms of clinical manifestations and reversibility. Eight (four DAVFs, four intradural AVMs) of 13 patients experienced neurological improvement after treatment. All patients with poor outcomes had intervals from onset of more than 3 years and showed contrast enhancement of the spinal cord on MRI studies. CONCLUSION: Spinal intradural AVMs as well as spinal DAVFs can be a cause of venous congestive myelopathy. Regardless of its etiology, congestive myelopathy is potentially reversible if properly diagnosed and treated.
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ranking = 1
keywords = fistula
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19/229. Transcatheter occlusion of a large pulmonary arteriovenous malformation with use of a Cardioseal device.

    Large pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) carry a significant risk of neurologic complications and present technical difficulties in transcatheter treatment with use of coils or detachable balloons. A 26-year-old man with a giant PAVM, who had undergone unsuccessful attempted closure with use of a Gianturco-Grifka occlusion device in the past, underwent successful transcatheter embolization with two Cardioseal double umbrella devices designed for occlusion of intracardiac communications. The procedure was technically easy, had no complications, and provided sustained improvement in arterial saturation and exercise tolerance during follow-up. Transcatheter double umbrella device occlusion of large arteriovenous malformations is feasible and should be considered, especially for very large fistulas.
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keywords = fistula
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20/229. Incidentally discovered giant renal arteriovenous malformation.

    A case is presented of giant renal arteriovenous malformation (AVM). A 61-year-old woman was admitted to the National Defense Medical College Hospital for further evaluation of a renal cyst. Doppler ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a giant renal AVM, although the patient had no history nor clinical sign suggesting an AVM. Under the diagnosis of a right renal AVM, the patient underwent AVM resection.
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ranking = 0.004995519508002
keywords = dental
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