Cases reported "Arteritis"

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1/334. Severe panarteritis associated with drug abuse.

    A case of panarteritis with purpura fulminans, mononeuritis multiplex, gastrointestinal manifestation and presumably cardiac involvement in a previously healthy 22-year-old man with a history of drug abuse including cocaine, cannabinoids and methamphetamines is described. Histopathological examination of the gut led to the diagnosis of panarteritis without immune deposits. Antineutrophil antibodies were negative. Besides the drugs, no other possible cause of vasculitis was found. The patient recovered completely after 1 year. Drug abuse is a thus possible cause of severe extracerebral disabling vasculitis. ( info)

2/334. Myocardial infarction in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus with normal findings from coronary arteriography and without coronary vasculitis--case reports.

    The authors present the cases of two young patients, a man and a woman, who presented with myocardial infarction, in the absence of ischemic heart disease or stenosis of the coronary arteries. The woman was known to have systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) for the past 3 years (the immunoglobulin m [IgM] anticardiolipins antibodies were positive), without a history of coronary risk factors. Suddenly she presented with acute chest pain on rest that lasted 4 hours and culminated in anterior wall myocardial infarction. She was admitted to the coronary care unit, where no thrombolysis was given. She did not have echocardiographic evidence of Libman-Sacks endocarditis, but myocardial infarction was evident at the electrocardiogram (ECG). The young man had SLE (the IgM anticardiolipins were absent, but he was positive for lupus anticoagulant antibodies), he was hyperlipidemic, was a moderate smoker and moderately obese, and had no history of ischemic heart disease. He suddenly presented with an acute myocardial infarction documented by ECG, enzymes, and gammagraphy. In both patients, coronary angiography findings were normal and myocardial biopsy did not show evidence of arteritis. The relevance of these cases is the rare association of ischemic heart disease in SLE, with normal coronary arteries and without evidence of arteritis or verrucous endocarditis. ( info)

3/334. Systemic granulomatous arteritis associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    A 61-year-old woman initially presented with symptoms and findings reminiscent of infectious mononucleosis, and her illness then took a rapidly fatal course. autopsy revealed widespread granulomatous arteritis, with multinucleated giant cells but without eosinophils and fibrinoid necrosis, affecting small arteries and arterioles and infiltration of haemophagocytic histiocytes into many organs. in situ hybridization with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific oligonucleotide probes showed positive signals in the infiltrating immune cells and epithelial and endothelial cells of the affected organs. EBV-associated haemophagocytic syndrome (EBV-AHS) with systemic granulomatous arteritis was diagnosed. From the immunophenotypes of the infiltrating immune cells, a possible role of CD4 T-cells in the pathogenesis of this haemophagocytic syndrome and granulomatous vasculitis was suggested. ( info)

4/334. magnetic resonance angiography of primary varicella vasculitis: report of two cases.

    Two patients with onset of hemiparesis 3 weeks following primary varicella infection demonstrated contralateral temporal lobe and basal ganglia infarctions on magnetic resonance imaging. In both cases, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) was performed and demonstrated flow abnormalities ipsilateral to the infarcts. Digital subtraction angiography was performed in one case; however, the findings were significantly less conspicuous than those of the MRA. MRA proved to be sensitive to the diagnosis of varicella-induced vasculitis in two consecutive cases and provided a noninvasive means of following the progression of the disease process in response to therapy. ( info)

5/334. Isolated pontine infarction due to rhinocerebral mucormycosis.

    We report a patient with rhinocerebral mucormycosis whose initial central nervous system involvement was isolated pontine infarction due to basilar arteritis caused by the fungus. The patient was diagnosed and followed by MRI and CT and basilar arteritis was demonstrated well on MRI studies. Involvement of the skull base was shown on CT in the later stage of the disease. The unusual initial presentation of the infection is discussed. ( info)

6/334. Staphylococcal coronary arteritis as a complication of septicemia.

    We describe a case of staphylococcal coronary arteritis in the setting of sepsis due to arteriovenous fistula and dialysis catheter infection. The left circumflex coronary artery was the only vessel involved. The patient was a 77-year-old, insulin-dependent diabetic man with chronic renal failure. The immunosuppressed state in diabetes with subsequent septicemia may have facilitated a large number of bacteria to lodge in the atheromatous plaque of the coronary artery. We briefly review previously reported cases and suggest that bacterial arteritis may be an underrecognized cause of acute coronary occlusion. ( info)

7/334. Paraneoplastic vasculitis associated with esophageal carcinoma.

    We report a case of esophageal carcinoma associated with paraneoplastic vasculitis. A 69-year-old man suffered from low-grade fever and numbness of the lower limbs for 3 months before esophageal and gastric carcinomas were detected. Concurrent infection or collagen disease was ruled out following clinical and laboratory examinations. In April 1996, the gastric carcinoma was completely removed by endoscopic mucosal resection, but the symptoms remained. Three weeks later esophagectomy was performed for esophageal carcinoma after which time the fever and numbness disappeared. The esophageal carcinoma was a well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma invading into the submucosal layer. Twenty-two lymph node metastases were found in 68 resected lymph nodes. Latent thyroid cancer was found. Histologically, vasculitis was detected in the esophagus, stomach and serratus anterior muscle. The distribution and degree of vasculitis were most pronounced in the esophagus. The concurrent onset and spontaneous resolution of fever and numbness after the removal of the esophageal carcinoma suggested a paraneoplastic origin. The majority of patients with malignant neoplasm-associated vasculitis had hematologic neoplasms. Cases of esophageal carcinoma associated with paraneoplastic vasculitis are extremely rare. ( info)

8/334. Unusual complications in an inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    An unusual case of an inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA) associated with coronary aneurysms and pathological fracture of the adjacent lumbar vertebrae. The associated coronary lesions in cases of IAAA are usually occlusions. In the present case, it was concluded that a possible cause of the coronary aneurysm was coronary arteritis and the etiology of the pathological fracture of the lumbar vertebrae was occlusion of the lumbar penetrating arteries due to vasculitis resulting in aseptic necrosis. Inflammatory AAA can be associated with aneurysms in addition to occlusive disease in systemic arteries. The preoperative evaluation of systemic arterial lesions and the function of systemic organs is essential. ( info)

9/334. Subclavian arteritis and pseudoaneurysm formation secondary to stent infection.

    Technically uncomplicated percutaneous angioplasty and stent placement of a left subclavian artery stenosis was performed in a 56-year-old man for treatment of subclavian steal syndrome and vertebrobasilar insufficiency. Six days later the patient was readmitted with staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and stigmata of septic emboli isolated to the ipsilateral hand. Nine days later he had computed tomography (CT) evidence of a contrast-enhancing phlegmon surrounding the stent. Despite clinical improvement and resolution of bacteremia on intravenous antibiotic therapy, the phlegmon progressed, and at day 21 a pseudoaneurysm was angiographically confirmed. The patient underwent surgical removal of the stented arterial segment and successful autogenous arterial reconstruction. The possible contributory factors leading to stent infection were prolonged right femoral artery access and an infected left arm venous access. Although the role of prophylactic antibiotics remains to be defined, it may be important in cases where the vascular access sheath remains in place for a prolonged period of time. ( info)

10/334. In utero development of hypertensive necrotizing pulmonary arterial lesions: report of a case associated with premature closure of the ductus arteriosus and pulmonary hypoplasia.

    Premature closure of the ductus arteriosus (PCDA) is an uncommon defect in which pulmonary hypertension (PH) has been documented by echocardiography in patients and by direct measurement after experimental PCDA in animals. The pulmonary vascular histology in human cases has received little attention but in the few recorded observations the vessels were either normal or showed increased muscularity. We report the case of a 31 week hydropic female stillborn monozygotic twin in whom postmortem examination disclosed PCDA and hypoplasia of the lungs. Atypical plexiform lesions with necrotizing pulmonary arteritis were present. These lesions represent vascular consequences of severe pulmonary hypertension produced by greatly enhanced blood flow through a restricted vascular bed resulting from the combined effects of these two abnormalities. The findings in this case of PCDA with presumed severe PH indicate that severe pulmonary vascular changes can develop in utero and that the interval of time needed for development of such chances in secondary PH is relatively short. ( info)
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