Cases reported "Arteritis"

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1/22. magnetic resonance angiography of primary varicella vasculitis: report of two cases.

    Two patients with onset of hemiparesis 3 weeks following primary varicella infection demonstrated contralateral temporal lobe and basal ganglia infarctions on magnetic resonance imaging. In both cases, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) was performed and demonstrated flow abnormalities ipsilateral to the infarcts. Digital subtraction angiography was performed in one case; however, the findings were significantly less conspicuous than those of the MRA. MRA proved to be sensitive to the diagnosis of varicella-induced vasculitis in two consecutive cases and provided a noninvasive means of following the progression of the disease process in response to therapy.
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keywords = varicella
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2/22. central nervous system and renal vasculitis associated with primary varicella infection in a child.

    A 7-year-old girl with primary varicella presented with encephalopathy and focal neurologic deficits 10 days after her first skin lesions appeared. She was discovered to have bilateral wedge-shaped renal infarctions, and ischemic lesions in the conus medullaris, cerebral cortex, and deep gray matter consistent with a medium and large vessel arteritis on magnetic resonance imaging. This complication has never before been reported in an immunocompetent child with primary varicella infection, and it represents a rare but serious complication of childhood chickenpox.
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keywords = varicella
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3/22. Large vessel arteritis associated with human herpesvirus 6 infections.

    A 9-month-old boy presented with chronic arteritis of the aorta and its major branches. The clinical manifestations at onset of his illness were compatible with those of Kawasaki syndrome. However, the febrile period lasted for 2 months despite various immunosuppressive therapies, and the levels of c-reactive protein remain high 18 months after onset. Elevated circulating immune complexes, decreased serum complement levels, hypergammaglobulinaemia and monoclonal gammopathy were observed. Active HHV-6 infection was shown by increased serum levels of antihuman herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) IgG and IgM antibodies, and positive HHV-6 dna in sera, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC) and lymph nodes. HHV-6 was actively replicating in PBMNC and lymph nodes, as shown by the detection of transcripts for the virus structural antigen. These results suggest that large vessel arteritis can be associated with HHV-6 infection.
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ranking = 0.080085722745329
keywords = herpes
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4/22. cerebral infarction in a child. A case report.

    Cerebral infarcts in children are rather rare and in most cases no precise etiology is established. The authors describe a case of cryptogenetic cerebral infarction in a 9-year-old boy. The child presented an acute onset of hemiplegia in the right arm and leg, central facial palsy, dysarthria and steppage. The infarction was proved by Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Laboratory and instrumental studies rule out all known causes of brain infarction. The only possible etiopathogenetic hypothesis was a varicella arteritis which occurred 45 days before the clinical manifestation.
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ranking = 0.16666666666667
keywords = varicella
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5/22. Varicella-zoster-virus folliculitis promoted clonal cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia.

    Post herpes zoster (HZ) reactions have been associated with panoply of neoplastic, inflammatory, and fibro-inflammatory cutaneous disorders. Varicella zoster virus (VZV) dna has not been identified in most of these reports. After an episode of HZ, a healthy, active 90-year-old female developed ulcerative nodules in the affected trigeminal V1 dermatome and the contra-lateral trigeminal region over a 1-year period. Excision and/or biopsy of all these lesions showed similar pathologic changes that consisted of herpetic folliculitis, adjacent dense mixed nodular lymphocytic infiltrates with germinal centers (cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia (CLH)), and in the deeper excision specimens, an obliterative vasculitis of a vessel with smooth muscle in its wall. Immunophenotype analysis revealed a mixed, predominate T- and B-cell population without loss of pan-T cell antigens or aberrant expression by B cells of T-cell antigens. polymerase chain reaction for herpetic dna was positive for VZV dna. Lymphocyte gene rearrangement analysis revealed 2 distinct, anatomically and chronologically, monoclonal B-cell populations and a monoclonal T-cell population in one nodule. Treatment with valacyclovir has lead to almost complete resolution of her cutaneous nodules after 6 months of therapy. In this case, it can be surmised that persistence of VZV infection and lack of effective cell-mediated immunity lead to development of both immunopathology (vasculitis) and excessive lymphoid cell proliferation (CLH).
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ranking = 2.1062309007999
keywords = herpes zoster, zoster, herpes
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6/22. Post-varicella intracranial haemorrhage in a child.

    We report a case of a 7-month-old male with primary intracranial haemorrhage 2 months after infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV). His initial clinical course was complicated by seizures and right hemiparesis; when last seen at 22 months the only positive finding was of left hand preference. Although the literature has recently established the association of arterial ischaemic stroke and VZV infection, primary intracranial haemorrhage has been reported only in one case. The child reported here had anterior interhemispheric haemorrhage due to a focal arteritis of the left anterior cerebral artery. The vascular abnormality was transient and had radiological features compatible with either a focal arteritis or vasospasm as a direct result of blood surrounding the vessels. We postulate that direct invasion of VZV caused extensive inflammation of the vessel wall and aggressive tissue penetration resulting in necrotizing angiitis and intracranial haemorrhage. We suggest that VZV infection should be considered a potential risk factor for intracranial haemorrhage in children.
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ranking = 1.3530803375298
keywords = zoster, varicella zoster, varicella
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7/22. Viruslike particles in granulomatous angiitis of the central nervous system.

    Neuropathologic examination of the brain of a 67-year-old woman with a 5-month history of progressive multiple neurologic deficits showed granulomatous angiitis of the small parenchymal and leptomeningeal blood vessels of the brain and spinal cord. Electron microscopy of formalin-fixed brain disclosed intranuclear viruslike particles resembling herpesvirus. Although definitive proof cannot be established without further virologic tests, this previously unreported finding suggests that some cases of granulomatous angiitis of the central nervous system may result from viral infection.
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ranking = 0.016017144549066
keywords = herpes
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8/22. Herpes zoster arteritis. Clinical and angiographic features.

    herpes zoster ophthalmicus is a common condition, and has now been widely recognised as associated with the delayed onset of neurological events, associated with angiographic evidence of arteritis. The time lag between the zoster and subsequent neurological symptoms, along with the age of the patients, often leads to a missed diagnosis. As more cases are recognised, the pathogenic mechanisms will be better characterised and treatment may become more effective.
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ranking = 1.7103615648724
keywords = zoster
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9/22. Isolated angiitis of the brain in a young female on the contraceptive pill.

    The case of a 15 year old girl with a rapidly progressing right sided hemiparesis is reported. The history and clinical manifestations were suggestive of either herpes simplex encephalitis or occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery. At necropsy an occlusive thrombosis of the left middle cerebral artery due to a segmental necrotizing granulomatous panarteritis was found. The cause was obscure. A plausible incriminating factor was the contraceptive pill.
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ranking = 0.2059501800754
keywords = encephalitis, herpes
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10/22. herpes zoster ophthalmicus with cerebral angiitis and reduced cerebral blood flow.

    Two patients with herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) who experienced a delayed contralateral hemiparesis, the so-called crossed zoster syndrome, are described. Particular emphasis is paid to the cerebral blood flow (CBF) findings studied with the xenon-133 inhalation technique using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In a 40-year-old female with right-sided hemiparesis, angiography showed multiple segmental narrowings of the intracerebral arteries. Cerebral computer tomography (CT) scans were normal. The CBF studied 11 months after the HZO showed a generalized reduction of flow which, however, was more pronounced in the left hemisphere. On re-examination 8 months later both the mean hemispheric flow and regional CBF (rCBF) had increased to normal values. In a 66-year-old male with dysphasia and right-sided hemiparesis, cerebral CT scans demonstrated two small deep left-sided infarcts. CBF examination showed a generalized reduction of flow in the left hemisphere. The flow was slightly increased on re-examination 12 months later. These findings suggest that the xenon-133 inhalation method represents a useful way to demonstrate the CBF pattern in this group of patients.
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ranking = 2.1062309007999
keywords = herpes zoster, zoster, herpes
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