Cases reported "Arthritis, Rheumatoid"

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1/19. Topical cyclosporin stimulates neovascularization in resolving sterile rheumatoid central corneal ulcers.

    OBJECTIVE: To report the successful use of topical cyclosporin for treatment of central sterile corneal ulcers associated with rheumatoid disease. DESIGN: Retrospective, noncomparative case series. PARTICIPANTS/INTERVENTION: Five patients (7 eyes) with collagen vascular disorders presented with central, sterile corneal ulcers. An extensive medical evaluation did not reveal active underlying rheumatoid disease in any patient. Inadequate clinical response with use of topical steroids and lubricants led to corneal perforations requiring multiple tectonic procedures. Systemic immunosuppressive therapy either could not be initiated owing to a systemic contraindication or was discontinued owing to intolerance and side effects. The patients were ultimately treated with topical cyclosporin. RESULTS: Six of the 7 eyes responded favorably. An intense limbal vascularization began within 48 hours of treatment. The neovascularization progressed centrally with the simultaneous arresting of epithelial and stromal ulceration. Over a 2-week period, re-epithelization occurred with vascularization proceeding throughout the cornea. After several months, the corneal vessels attenuated, and all signs of inflammation subsided. Intrastromal bleeding with corneal blood staining occurred in 1 patient; this resolved over several months. No recurrences of corneal ulceration occurred in a mean follow-up period of 28 months (range, 7 to 60 months). None of the 5 patients have had a reactivation of their rheumatoid disease in the follow-up period. CONCLUSION: The clinical response in these patients contrasts with previous animal studies demonstrating an anti-angiogenic property of cyclosporin. We report that an immediate intense neovascularization is the first sign of a favorable clinical response. Treatment with topical cyclosporin alone may be considered in patients with sterile corneal ulcers associated with rheumatoid disease in the absence of systemic activation.
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2/19. Autologous stem cell transplantation in the treatment of refractory rheumatoid arthritis.

    The concept of using high-dose immunosuppressive treatment (HDIT) with autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) to treat patients with refractory rheumatoid arthritis has been provided by animal studies and anecdotal case reports. Over the past five years, an increasing number of patients with refractory rheumatoid arthritis have received HDIT with ASCT as an adjunct to intense immunosuppression. Here, we present a case of refractory rheumatoid arthritis in a 54-yr-old woman using HDIT with ASCT. Peripheral blood stem cells were mobilized with cyclophosphamide (4 g/m(2)) followed by G-CSF (5 microg/kg/day). leukapheresis continued daily until the number of harvested progenitor cells reached 2 x 10(6) CD34 cells/kg after CliniMax CD34 positive selection. For HDIT, high-dose cyclophosphamide (total dose 200 mg/kg) and antithymocyte globulin (total dose 90 mg/kg) were administered and CD34 cells were infused 24 hr after HDIT. The patient tolerated the treatment well but experienced an episode of neutropenic fever. She achieved an early dramatic improvement of joint symptoms during therapy. Fifty percent of improvement of rheumatoid arthritis by the American College of rheumatology (ACR 50) preliminary definition was fulfilled during the 6 months following ASCT. Although further long-term follow-up is required, the patient's activity of arthritis has been stable since receiving HDIT with ASCT.
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3/19. Anti-Golgi antibody in rheumatoid arthritis patients recognizes a novel antigen of 79 kDa (doublet) by western blot.

    We have detected cytoplasmic anti-Golgi antibody (AGA) during a routine immunofluorescence test for detecting autoantibodies. Two sera from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) reacted to the Golgi complex by an indirect immunofluorescence technique on HEp-2 cells. Localization of AGA in the Golgi complex was confirmed by double-staining with antibodies to beta-COP. The effect of monensin on the integrity and morphology of the Golgi complex was also studied. To confirm the presence of AGA further, we performed immuno-electron microscopy. Both sera reacted with cytoplasmic antigen located in the Golgi complex of various animal tissues. Furthermore, by using the Western blot technique, both sera reacted to a relative molecular weight (MW) of 79 kDa (doublet) Golgi antigen purified from rat liver. To our knowledge, this study may be the first to identify the relative MW of Golgi antigen by the Western blot method. Identification of this antibody could provide better understanding of protein synthesis and secretion. The presence of AGA in RA patients further substantiates the diversified nature of autoantibody production seen in this disease.
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4/19. A case of legionellosis during treatment with a TNFalpha antagonist.

    We report a patient with legionella pneumophila pneumonia after infliximab therapy for rheumatoid arthritis. Arguments are discussed for an emerging incidence of infections with intracellular microorganisms, granulomatous and non-granulomatous, in patients having received anti-TNFalpha therapy. These discussions consist of clinical and epidemiological data, experimental data in animals, theoretical evidence, and we provide a possible pathogenetic mechanism.
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5/19. pasteurella multocida infection in total knee arthroplasty. Case report and literature review.

    pasteurella multocida, a small gram-negative bacterium, is part of the normal mouth flora of many animals, including domestic cats and dogs. While commonly associated with infections in animals, it is a rare cause of human disease. The majority of pasteurella infections in humans occur with percutaneous inoculation of the organism following a bite by a cat or dog, although disease without antecedent animal exposure or with causal animal contact does occur. The spectrum of disease produced ranges from localized, including abscess, cellulitis, lymphadenopathy, and osteomyelitis, to systemic, with septicemia, septic arthritis, respiratory, and central nervous system involvement. Altered host defenses and underlying chronic disease, such as rheumatoid arthritis, corticosteroid therapy, and severe hepatic or renal disease, may predispose to more serious systemic manifestations of infection. The authors report a case of P. multocida infection in a total knee arthroplasty as a result of a dog scratch and review the literature reporting P. multocida infections in total knee arthroplasty.
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6/19. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha blockers: potential limitations in the management of advanced endometriosis? A case report.

    Several studies have shown that tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha levels are increased in the peritoneal fluid of women with endometriosis, with correlation between TNF-alpha concentrations and the degree of disease. It is also likely that elevation of peritoneal fluids' TNF-alpha levels may play a role in the pathogenesis of infertility associated with endometriosis. Use of drugs such as etanercept, a TNF-alpha receptor immunoglobulin fusion protein which inhibits TNF-alpha activity, showed in an animal study to reduce the severity of the disease, and the size of endometriotic foci. TNF-alpha blockers were recommended as a possible new line of therapy for endometriosis. Our case involved a 35-year-old Para 0, with rheumatic arthritis and stage 4 endometriosis. After 6 years of constant use of etanercept, she showed no improvement of endometriosis as demonstrated at laparoscopy. However, she underwent a successful IVF after the first attempt. TNF-alpha-blocker medications might not be beneficial for patients with advanced endometriosis. However, we cannot exclude the possible effect of these medications on early-stage endometriosis, and further study is required. Some of the immunologic abnormalities in the pelvis of patients with endometriosis could be the consequence of the disease and not the cause, and possibly suppression of immune cells and their products may not have a major effect on endometriotic lesions at an advanced stage. This also could explain why suppression of TNF-alpha showed no effect on infertility. However, use of TNF-alpha-blockers before IVF might increase the success rate in advanced endometriosis.
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7/19. New-onset rheumatoid arthritis after anthrax vaccination.

    BACKGROUND: anthrax vaccine was licensed in 1970 and is used to protect individuals exposed to biological warfare and those who may come in contact with bacillus anthracis in infected animals or in laboratory settings. The current adsorbed anthrax vaccine is regarded as effective and safe. Adverse effects reported include fever, chills, myalgia, arthralgia, and nausea. Four cases of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) temporally related to anthrax vaccine have been reported. As the number of administered doses increases, a better understanding of its adverse events profile will be forthcoming. OBJECTIVE: To describe another patient with RA temporally related to anthrax vaccination. methods: A 42-year-old man developed bilateral knee stiffness and pain in all the proximal interphalangeal joints 5 days after receiving the first dose of anthrax vaccine. He reported chills, fever, and joint and neck pain, with a tender nodule at the injection site after dose 2. Hours after receiving dose 3 he experienced fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, and neck, hand, and shoulder pain. The vaccination series was terminated after the third dose. RESULTS: physical examination revealed moderate swelling and tenderness of his bilateral proximal interphalangeal joints. His complete blood cell count was normal; rheumatoid factor level, 198 IU/mL; erythrocyte sedimentation rate, 53 mm/h; antinuclear antibodies, negative; c-reactive protein level, 2.7 mg/L; and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody level, 168 EU. Radiographs revealed mild degenerative changes in his hands and knees bilaterally. CONCLUSIONS: This case represents a fifth patient with RA temporally related to anthrax vaccine.
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8/19. interferon-gamma induced exacerbation of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    A patient with presumed rheumatoid arthritis based on clinical and serological evidence was subjected by her physician to interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) therapy and developed a life threatening multiorgan flare of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). pulse cyclophosphamide therapy in conjunction with plasmapheresis led to complete remission. Retrospective analysis of serum drawn before IFN-gamma was started revealed high dna binding capacity. Thus, similar to observations in lupus-prone animals, IFN-gamma may have induced an exacerbation of preexisting SLE.
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9/19. gold sodium thiomalate (GTM) induces hypersensitivity to thiomalate, the thiol carrier of GTM.

    A case of the gold sodium thiomalate (GTM)-induced eruptions with thiomalate (TM) hypersensitivity was reported. A 61-year-old Japanese woman developed lichenoid and seborrheic dermatitis (SD)-like eruptions with alopetia, when the total dosage of GTM administered for rheumatoid arthritis became 110 mg. The eruptions slowly disappeared with pigmentation after discontinuance of the GTM therapy, and the resumption resulted in the development of similar eruptions. She showed a positive reaction to GTM in an intradermal test. She also showed a positive response to TM, which is the thiol carrier of GTM, in the patch test, but a negative one to metallic gold. After administration of auranofin (AF), she also developed the SD-like eruptions with hypersensitivity to metallic gold as well as AF on patch testing, but did not develop the lichenoid ones. Our animal experiments revealed an almost complete cross reaction between GTM and TM, but only a partial one between GTM and aurothioglucose, which have dissmilar structures in the carrier part for gold. Probable roles of hypersensitivity to TM and metallic gold, which are metabolites of GTM, were discussed, respectively, in the genesis of the GTM-induced lichenoid eruptions and the AF-induced SD-like eruptions.
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10/19. Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis of the finger caused by exophiala spinifera.

    A patient with severe rheumatoid arthritis treated with prednisone had a painless soft tissue nodule develop on the dorsal aspect of the ring finger. She denied any history of hand trauma, animal exposure, or systemic symptoms such as fever or malaise. Fungal cultures performed on an aseptically obtained aspirate of this lesion demonstrated dark, olive-black creamy colonies on Sabouraud's agar. Slide cultures made from mold colonies produced slender conidial forms with annellations and spine-like conidiophores, features characteristic of exophiala spinifera. The lesion was surgically excised, and the patient was successfully treated with a course of oral itraconazole. This nodular lesion has not recurred at the time of this writing. exophiala species are difficult to differentiate, and E. spinifera may be confused with exophiala jeanselmei. A literature review will consider exophiala species and clinical manifestations produced by these dematiaceous fungi.
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