Cases reported "Arthritis, Rheumatoid"

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1/85. Lumbar intraspinal synovial cysts of different etiologies: diagnosis by CT and MR imaging.

    Intraspinal synovial cysts arises from a facet joint and may cause radicular symptoms due to nerve root compression. In the present study, three surgically and histologically proved cases of synovial cyst of the lumbar spine with different etiology are described. The purpose of this report is to illustrate the imaging features of various etiologies of intraspinal synovial cysts allowing a correct preoperative diagnosis. review of the literature enables us to say that to our knowledge, there is no reported article collecting the imaging findings of intraspinal synovial cysts with different etiologies. Only single cases with rheumatoid arthritic or traumatic origin have been reported to date. We believe that computed tomography and particularly magnetic resonance imaging are the methods of choice which provide the most valuable diagnostic information.
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keywords = operative
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2/85. Occipitocervicothoracic fixation for spinal instability in patients with neoplastic processes.

    OBJECT: Occipitocervicothoracic (OCT) fixation and fusion is an infrequently performed procedure to treat patients with severe spinal instability. Only three cases have been reported in the literature. The authors have retrospectively reviewed their experience with performing OCT fixation in patients with neoplastic processes, paying particular attention to method, pain relief, and neurological status. methods: From July 1994 through July 1998, 13 of 552 patients who underwent a total of 722 spinal operations at the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center have required OCT fixation for spinal instability caused by neoplastic processes (12 of 13 patients) or rheumatoid arthritis (one of 13 patients). Fixation was achieved by attaching two intraoperatively contoured titanium rods to the occiput via burr holes and Luque wires or cables; to the cervical spinous processes with wisconsin wires; and to the thoracic spine with a combination of transverse process and pedicle hooks. Crosslinks were used to attain additional stability. In all patients but one arthrodesis was performed using allograft. At a follow-up duration of 1 to 45 months (mean 14 months), six of the 12 patients with neoplasms remained alive, whereas the other six patients had died of malignant primary disease. There were no deaths related to the surgical procedure. Postoperatively, one patient experienced respiratory insufficiency, and two patients required revision of rotational or free myocutaneous flaps. All patients who presented with spine-based pain experienced a reduction in pain, as measured by a visual analog scale for pain. All patients who were neurologically intact preoperatively remained so; seven of seven patients with neurological impairment improved; and six of seven patients improved one Frankel grade. There were no occurrences of instrumentation failure or hardware-related complications. In one patient a revision of the instrumentation was required 13.5 months following the initial surgery for progression of malignant fibrous histiosarcoma. CONCLUSIONS: In selected patients, OCT fixation is an effective means of attaining stabilization that can provide pain relief and neurological preservation or improvement.
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ranking = 3
keywords = operative
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3/85. Early experience with total knee replacement.

    This paper presents a review of two years' experience with the geometric total knee replacement. The results of 23 arthroplasties in 22 patients are discussed. Relief of pain was consistent and dramatic, movement was increased postoperatively in only three patients, but imporvement in overall function occurred in 20 of the 22 patients. There was one failure requiring arthrodesis. In this patient, six months after surgery the medial tibial condyle collapsed and the polyethylene tibial component fractured. This complication has not been reported before. Early results are encouraging. Total knee joint replacement is a useful procedure in advanced arthritis when arthrodesis is the only alternative.
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ranking = 1
keywords = operative
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4/85. Postoperative fatal intestinal necrosis after enalapril treatment in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis.

    The inappropriate use of antihypertensive medications may cause hypotensive responses associated with organ failure. We describe a patient who developed nonocclusive splanchnic ischemia leading to death following the administration of enalapril to treat postoperative hypertension. The mechanisms and consequences of refractory hypotension induced by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors are discussed.
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ranking = 5
keywords = operative
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5/85. Results of a longer than 10-year follow-Up of patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated by occipitocervical fusion.

    STUDY DESIGN: Evaluation of results a longer than 10-year follow-up of patients with upper cervical lesions due to rheumatoid arthritis who underwent occipitocervical fusion. OBJECTIVE: To determine the final outcome of patients with upper cervical lesions due to rheumatoid arthritis treated by occipitocervical fusion. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: There are few studies reporting the final outcome of patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated by occipitocervical fusion and observed for longer than 10 years. methods: The subjects were 16 patients with rheumatoid arthritis with myelopathy who underwent occipitocervical fusion with a rectangular rod more than 10 years ago. All 16 patients had irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation, and 11 also had vertical dislocation of the axis. All patients had preoperative nuchal pain, and were classified into Class II (two patients), Class IIIA (nine patients), and class IIIB (five patients) according to Ranawat's preoperative neurologic classification. RESULTS: The atlas-dens interval remained the same as immediately after surgery. Vertical dislocation returned to the preoperative condition, despite successful surgical correction. Preoperative occipital pain disappeared or was reduced in all cases. Myelopathy improved in 12 of the 16 patients (75%) by more than one class in the Ranawat preoperative neurologic classification. survival rate at 10 years after surgery was 38%; mean age at death was 70.7 years. The postoperative periods during which patients could walk by themselves ranged from 6 months to 13 years (mean, 7.5 years). CONCLUSIONS: Occipitocervical fusion for patients with rheumatoid arthritis is useful for decreasing nuchal pain, reducing myelopathy, and improving prognosis.
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ranking = 6
keywords = operative
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6/85. Multiple epidermal inclusion cysts in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis: a case report.

    A construction worker with rheumatoid arthritis presented with multiple soft tissue masses on the volar surface of the palm and digits. A misdiagnosis of rheumatoid nodules was made secondary to the patient's history of rheumatoid arthritis. Subsequent excision confirmed multiple epidermal inclusion cysts, which was not entertained in the preoperative differential diagnosis. Follow-up evaluation 3 years later revealed no evidence of local recurrence. Based on our literature review, multiple epidermal inclusion cysts is a rare entity and has not been reported in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis.
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ranking = 1
keywords = operative
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7/85. A case report of insufficiency fracture of the Fossa acetabuli in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Aside from vertebral compression fractures, the most common site of insufficiency fractures is the pelvis and lower extremities. In the pelvis, the fractures usually occur in the ilium, the pubis and the ischium, but rarely in the fossa acetabuli. We report a severe insufficiency fracture of the fossa acetabuli in a 78-year-old woman with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). She had associated insufficiency fractures of the rib, the thoracic spine and the sacrum. In our case, senile osteoporosis was present before the onset of the fracture was recognized on radiographs, and RA and corticosteroid therapy might have further aggravated the porosis, resulting in the destruction of the fossa acetabuli. Regarding treatment for the fracture, a cemented total hip replacement without bone graft was attempted for several reasons such as the patient's activities, postoperative rehabilitation and the bone mass of the acetabulum. The postoperative course was satisfactory during study period. However, further follow-up is needed to monitor carefully how the patient will be in the future.
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ranking = 2
keywords = operative
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8/85. Severe anaemia: implications for functional recovery during rehabilitation.

    PURPOSE: This case report examines the hospital course and functional recovery of a geriatric patient with severe anaemia undergoing rehabilitation following total hip replacement. It serves to highlight the need for further study of the impact of anaemia on recovery in the rehabilitation setting as well as the importance of developing clinical guidelines for the appropriate medical management of anaemia in this patient population. methods: Single case report. RESULTS: The course of recovery during rehabilitation in a geriatric patient with severe post-operative anaemia was notably different from other geriatric patients undergoing rehabilitation following total hip replacement. The patient demonstrated a markedly reduced tolerance for therapies and prolonged length of stay, but did not experience cardiopulmonary complications during intensive rehabilitation. Her hematocrit responded nicely to treatment with human recombinant erythropoietin. Despite a prolonged recovery period, the patient ultimately progressed well and achieved a good functional outcome. CONCLUSIONS: The impact of anaemia on functional recovery in the acute inpatient rehabilitation setting as well as the theoretical risk of increased morbidity and mortality during prescribed therapeutic exercise has not been closely examined in the literature. Further study is indicated to examine the implications for anaemia on functional recovery and cardiopulmonary complications during rehabilitation. General guidelines should be developed for the management of anaemia in the rehabilitation setting.
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ranking = 1
keywords = operative
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9/85. Palmar shelf arthroplasty, the next generation: distraction/interposition for rheumatoid arthritis of the wrist.

    Rheumatoid arthritis affects approximately 1 percent of the adult population. Bilateral symmetric involvement of the wrist occurs in 85 percent of these patients, with recurrent flares and relentless progression. Anatomic changes consist of radiocarpal, intercarpal, and radioulnar subluxation and joint destruction. For advanced disease, both wrist arthrodesis and arthroplasty have been recommended. arthrodesis has been successful for pain relief at the expense of motion. Implant arthroplasty has been unreliable, with failure rates of 25 to 50 percent at 2 to 9 years. Palmar shelf arthroplasty was introduced in 1970 as a resectional fibrous arthroplasty. The results were good but the series was small. Subsequent reports of this procedure have been inconsistent. In 1990, I initiated and have since followed a series of patients treated with the palmar shelf arthroplasty. To the basic procedure, I added joint distraction by external fixator, collagen/bone wax interposition, scapholunate stabilization, and increased immobilization time. Fourteen consecutive patients were enrolled in this study. Each carried a diagnosis of rheumatoid or psoriatic arthritis of the wrist. There were 11 women and 3 men. Age ranged from 28 to 56 years. Follow-up ranged from 2 to 7 years (average 4.2). The patients were interviewed, examined, and x-rayed. A questionnaire using an analog scale as well as the Hospital for Special Surgery scoring system was completed to assess the clinical outcome of the wrist postoperatively compared with its preoperative status and with the contralateral wrist. No patient has requested or required a revision procedure. All patients experienced improvement with both pain and function; no wrist spontaneously fused. patient satisfaction was high. patients with ipsilateral arthroplasty and contralateral arthrodesis preferred the arthroplasty. Hospital for Special Surgery score increased from 53 to 91 out of 100 points (p < 0.001). Range of motion averaged 50 degrees flexion, 30 degrees extension. Palmar shelf arthroplasty remains a viable option for severe rheumatoid disease of the wrist. Ideally, the procedure is performed on the dominant wrist of a patient with bilateral wrist involvement in the setting of inflammatory arthritis.
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ranking = 2
keywords = operative
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10/85. Periprosthetic tibial fractures after cementless low contact stress total knee arthroplasty.

    periprosthetic fractures are a recognized complication of total knee arthroplasty. Fractures may occur intraoperatively or postoperatively, and risk factors have been identified that may predispose an individual to such a complication. We report 7 cases of periprosthetic tibial fractures after low contact stress total knee arthroplasty, a complication encountered by the senior author (D.E.B.) only after a change in practice from a cemented implant to a cementless one. In light of this previously unreported complication in our unit, we attempted to identify common features within this group of patients that may have contributed to fracture occurrence. Statistical analysis revealed a highly significant (P<.005) risk of periprosthetic tibial fracture in patients with a preoperative neutral or valgus knee. Age, gender, and diagnosis did not appear to increase the risk of fracture significantly. All patients displayed evidence of reduced bone mineral density in the lumbar spine and femoral neck regions on dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scanning. patients with a preoperative neutral or valgus knee and local evidence of osteopenia represent a high-risk group, in whom particular care in alignment should be taken. In this group, it may be preferable to have the tibial component inserted with cement fixation.
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ranking = 4
keywords = operative
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