Cases reported "Arthritis, Rheumatoid"

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1/27. Early experience with total knee replacement.

    This paper presents a review of two years' experience with the geometric total knee replacement. The results of 23 arthroplasties in 22 patients are discussed. Relief of pain was consistent and dramatic, movement was increased postoperatively in only three patients, but imporvement in overall function occurred in 20 of the 22 patients. There was one failure requiring arthrodesis. In this patient, six months after surgery the medial tibial condyle collapsed and the polyethylene tibial component fractured. This complication has not been reported before. Early results are encouraging. Total knee joint replacement is a useful procedure in advanced arthritis when arthrodesis is the only alternative.
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ranking = 1
keywords = tibia
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2/27. Bone non-union after osteotomy in patients treated with methotrexate.

    We describe 2 men with seronegative rheumatoid arthritis who presented non-union of bone after osteotomy of the tibia in one case and of a metatarsal bone in the second. Both patients were still being treated with oral low doses of methotrexate (MTX). After MTX was stopped, a prompt healing of the bone occurred. These observations suggest that MTX should be stopped temporarily in cases with delayed bone healing after surgery.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = tibia
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3/27. The use of magnetic resonance imaging in posterior tibial tendon dysfunction.

    The role of magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of the patient with posterior tibial tendon dysfunction is discussed. Considerations for the proper positioning of the patient and optimal technique to obtain appropriate images of the posterior tibial tendon and associated joint abnormalities are highlighted. Cases are presented to show the effectiveness of magnetic resonance imaging in different clinical situations. The treatment algorithm for posterior tibial tendon dysfunction should include magnetic resonance imaging as a diagnostic tool when appropriate.
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ranking = 3.5
keywords = tibia
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4/27. Posterior tibial neuropathy by a Baker's cyst: case report.

    Baker's cysts are rare cause of peripheral nerve entrapment and only a few cases of tibial nerve entrapment resulting from the popliteal cyst in the calf muscle have been reported in the literature. We present a case of rheumatoid arthritis complicated by a Baker's cyst with a tibial nerve entrapment. It is important to diagnose a Baker's cyst early and to differentiate it from thrombophlebitis, a popliteal aneurysm, tumor or muscle tear to effect optimal therapy and to obviate a potential neuropathy. Prompt recognition of these cases may save the patients unnecessary procedures and delay in treatment.
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ranking = 3
keywords = tibia
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5/27. Insufficiency fractures in rheumatic patients: misdiagnosis and underlying characteristics.

    OBJECTIVE: To report 9 patients with rheumatic diseases referred to our observation due to presumed exacerbation of their rheumatic disease, subsequently diagnosed as stress insufficiency fractures, and to characterize the clinical profile of patients prone to this complication. methods: The medical history of the patients was reviewed with special emphasis on their rheumatic disease, its course, duration and management, their menopausal state, location and characteristics of the fracture, its presentation and the initial presumed diagnosis, the delay in diagnosis, imaging diagnostic tests performed and outcome. Three representative case reports are presented. RESULTS: All 9 patients were women, 8 of them aged 50 years old or more, 8 with rheumatoid arthritis and 1 with polymyalgia rheumatica. They were all treated with corticosteroids and had reduction in their bone mass density when evaluated. Three of the patients presented with subcapital fracture of the femur, 4 had fractures of metatarsal bones and 2 had fractures of the distal tibia. In only one patient was a stress fracture initially suspected. Diagnosis was delayed by a mean of 31 days. CONCLUSION: The diagnosis of stress fractures in patients with rheumatic diseases may often be delayed or missed, and thus improperly treated. Increased awareness of this entity is of importance for prompt diagnosis and correct management.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = tibia
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6/27. Pulmonary nodule and aggressive tibialis posterior tenosynovitis in early rheumatoid arthritis.

    We report the case of a 34-year-old man with a rheumatoid pulmonary nodule preceding the development of articular symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis. Pulmonary nodules are a well known feature of rheumatoid arthritis and are mostly seen in severe established rheumatoid factor-positive cases. To differentiate between benign and malign pulmonary nodules we discuss the use of positron emission tomography (PET). Despite intensive therapy with steroids and methotrexate in our patient, within months he developed a severe tibialis posterior tendinitis, with partial rupture and evolution to a planovalgus deformity requiring surgery. Both these symptoms are rare but demonstrate the need for close follow-up in early rheumatoid arthritis.
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ranking = 2.5
keywords = tibia
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7/27. Bilateral tibia and fibula fractures in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis.

    A 52-year-old woman with rheumatoid arthritis treated with low-dose steroids developed bilateral distal tibia and fibula fractures over a 15-month period. Her bone density was within osteopenic levels. Such fractures are an unusual but increasingly recognised complication of rheumatoid disease and its treatment, although there is often diagnostic delay. Bilateral fractures are particularly rare. A high level of clinical suspicion is required for early diagnosis.
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ranking = 2.5
keywords = tibia
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8/27. Periprosthetic tibial fractures after cementless low contact stress total knee arthroplasty.

    periprosthetic fractures are a recognized complication of total knee arthroplasty. Fractures may occur intraoperatively or postoperatively, and risk factors have been identified that may predispose an individual to such a complication. We report 7 cases of periprosthetic tibial fractures after low contact stress total knee arthroplasty, a complication encountered by the senior author (D.E.B.) only after a change in practice from a cemented implant to a cementless one. In light of this previously unreported complication in our unit, we attempted to identify common features within this group of patients that may have contributed to fracture occurrence. Statistical analysis revealed a highly significant (P<.005) risk of periprosthetic tibial fracture in patients with a preoperative neutral or valgus knee. Age, gender, and diagnosis did not appear to increase the risk of fracture significantly. All patients displayed evidence of reduced bone mineral density in the lumbar spine and femoral neck regions on dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scanning. patients with a preoperative neutral or valgus knee and local evidence of osteopenia represent a high-risk group, in whom particular care in alignment should be taken. In this group, it may be preferable to have the tibial component inserted with cement fixation.
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ranking = 3.5
keywords = tibia
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9/27. Filling of segmental bone defects in revision knee arthroplasty using morsellized bone grafts contained within a metal mesh.

    For revision knee surgery with uncontained tibial bone defects, the authors report the containment of compacted morsellized allograft using metal-wire mesh, followed by implantation of a cemented total knee prosthesis. This method is comparable to the "impaction grafting technique" described for revision hip surgery and could be an alternative to metal wedges, augmented components, custom-made implants, polymethyl-methacrylate or structural bone grafts to solve some problems of cavitary and segmental bone defects in revision total knee arthroplasty.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = tibia
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10/27. posterior tibial tendon dysfunction and MR imaging in rheumatoid arthritis.

    We present the case of a patient with long-standing rheumatoid arthritis and an acute onset of total dysfunction of the posterior tibial tendon. On MRI, a rupture of the tendon was apparent. Intraoperatively, however, massive tenosynovitis with stricture of the tendon was identified as the cause of posterior tibial tendon dysfunction. This case illustrates a pitfall in MRI imaging with potential diagnostic and therapeutic consequences.
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ranking = 3
keywords = tibia
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