Cases reported "Arthritis"

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1/116. A technical solution for secondary arthritis due to chronic proximal tibiofibular joint instability.

    Chronic instability of the proximal tibiofibular joint is an uncommon diagnosis and not frequently reported in the literature. The management options of this joint instability, complicated with secondary arthritis, have rarely been discussed and consist mainly of fibular head resection or arthrodesis of this joint. We describe a new technical procedure for addressing both the instability and the joint secondary arthritis. Stability of the joint is achieved by ligament reconstruction using a biceps femoris split passed through the tibial metaphysis and fixated back to the fibular head using bone anchors. The arthritic changes are addressed by interposition of a vascularized fascia lata strip. The described procedure offers a firm stabilization with no need for postoperative restrictions and an alternative to the inadvisable joint arthrodesis or resection.
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2/116. Is there a pathogenic link between gamma heavy chain disease and chronic arthritis?

    In 1991, gamma heavy chain disease was diagnosed in a 43-year-old female, who 3 years earlier had contracted an erosive seronegative chronic arthropathy. In 1996, her lymphoproliferative disorder required treatment with melphalan and prednisolone. Laboratory studies revealed a gamma3 heavy chain monoclonal component in serum and urine. Massive localization of plasma cells and blasts with cytoplasmic or cell membrane staining for gamma3 chains, but no staining for light chains, was observed by immunohistochemical studies of bone marrow as well as affected synovial tissue. Large amounts of extracellular gamma3-chains were also deposited in the synovial membrane. This is the first documentation of gamma heavy chain deposition disease directly affecting articular structures. Whether it represents the primary pathogenic event followed by reactive inflammatory changes in the joints, or another example of gamma heavy chain disease preceded by chronic arthritis, remains elusive. Regardless, several common cellular and molecular mechanisms discussed here suggest a pathogenic link between the two disease processes.
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3/116. Erosive polyarthritis in Crohn's disease. Report of a case.

    Erosive polyarthritis in Crohn's disease is rare and raises diagnostic and pathophysiological problems. A case with destructive lesions of the shoulders and hips is reported in a 43-year-old woman with a 26-year history of Crohn's disease. ankylosis of the spine and hips, motion range limitation of the shoulders and wrists, and boutonniere deformity of the third finger of the right hand were present. Tests were negative for rheumatoid factor and the hla-b27 antigen. Plain radiographs showed a triple rail pattern at the spine; synostosis of the hips; and destructive lesions of the shoulders, wrists, tarsal bones, and third proximal interphalangeal joint of the right hand. Glucocorticoid therapy was effective in suppressing the bowel symptom flares but only partially improved the joint symptoms, whose treatment relied mainly on nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents and rehabilitation therapy. Erosive arthritis in Crohn's disease is frequently monoarticular, with the hip being the most common target. It can complicate a spondylarthropathy or reveal granulomatous synovitis. Polyarticular forms pose difficult diagnostic and therapeutic challenges and add to the disability caused by the bowel disease. The potential role of genetic factors remains to be studied.
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4/116. Sea urchin puncture resulting in PIP joint synovial arthritis: case report and MRI study.

    Of the 600 species of sea urchins, approximately 80 may be venomous to humans. The long spined or black sea urchin, Diadema setosum may cause damage by the breaking off of its brittle spines after they penetrate the skin. synovitis followed by arthritis may be an unusual but apparently not a rare sequel to such injury, when implantation occurs near a joint. In this case report, osseous changes were not seen by plain x-rays. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to expose the more salient features of both soft tissue and bone changes of black sea urchin puncture injury 30 months after penetration. In all likelihood, this type of injury may be more common than the existing literature at present suggests. It is believed to be the first reported case in this part of the world as well as the first MRI study describing this type of joint pathology. Local and systemic reactions to puncture injuries from sea urchin spines have been described previously. These may range from mild, local irritation lasting a few days to granuloma formation, infection and on occasions systemic illness. The sea urchin spines are composed of calcium carbonate with proteinaceous covering. The covering tends to cause immune reactions of variable presentation. There are only a handful of reported cases with sea urchin stings on record, none of them from the Red Sea. However, this condition is probably more common than is thought and can present difficulty in diagnosis. In this case report, the inflammation responded well to heat treatment, mobilization and manipulation of the joint in its post acute and chronic stages. As some subtle changes in soft tissues and the changes in bone were not seen either on plain x-rays or ultrasound scan, gadolinium-enhanced MRI was used to unveil the marked changes in the joint.
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5/116. incidence of occult cancer in children presenting with musculoskeletal symptoms: a 10-year survey in a pediatric rheumatology unit.

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the frequency and types of cancer found in children presenting to our Unit with musculoskeletal symptoms over a 10-year period. methods: The medical records of patients with musculoskeletal symptoms and a final diagnosis of cancer were reviewed. In each case age, gender, presenting symptoms, laboratory data, diagnostic procedures, provisional and final diagnoses, and time between clinical onset and correct diagnosis were reviewed. RESULTS: An underlying neoplasia was found in 10 of 1,254 patients (<1%) complaining of musculoskeletal symptoms. The types of malignancies found included acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) (6 cases), lymphoma (2 cases), neuroblastoma (1 case), and Ewing's sarcoma (1 case). The mean time between disease onset and final diagnosis was 3.2 months. The most common presenting feature was monoarthritis, involving the larger joints such as the elbows, knees or ankles. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) was the most frequent provisional diagnosis. In the preliminary hematologic evaluation, eight patients had an increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) or c-reactive protein (CRP) value. White blood cell (WBC) count was normal in almost all children, with a normal differential count. Lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) was raised in all children. bone marrow aspirates and lymph node or bone biopsies were necessary to reach the final diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: A malignancy should always be excluded in children with musculoskeletal symptoms, especially when the clinical pattern is not characteristic of a specific rheumatic disease. Routine laboratory tests may be misleading. The simultaneous presence of high LDH or alpha-hydroxybutyric dehydrogenase (alpha-HBDH) levels and raised ESR or CRP, even with normal blood cell counts, should lead to additional investigations. RELEVANCE: All patients presenting with arthritis or other musculoskeletal symptoms should have a thorough clinical examination. Disproportionate pain levels and an atypical pattern of "arthritis," especially in the presence of systemic manifestations, suggest a possible underlying malignancy.
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6/116. Axial osteomalacia with sacroiliitis and moderate phosphate diabetes: report of a case.

    We report a new case of axial osteomalacia diagnosed in a 51-year-old white Caucasian male, made particular by its association with sacroiliitis, positive hla-b27 antigen, and also moderate phosphate diabetes responsible for a decreased appendicular bone mass. The diagnosis was suspected when X-ray evaluation showed increased density and coarse trabeculation mainly involving the pelvis and spine. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry confirmed the elevated bone density at the lumbar spine (T score: 1.92) contrasting with a decreased bone mass at the femoral neck (T score: -2.33). The diagnosis was confirmed by histomorphometry of the iliac crest showing marked thickening of the cortices (2190 microns /- 0.574, N = 780 /- 40) and an increased trabecular bone volume (33.24%, N = 14 /- 3). Osteoid parameters were also markedly increased with an osteoid volume of 2.1% (N = 1.2 /- 0.5) and a mean osteoid thickness of 28.7 microns (N = 13 /- 2.5), with a normal bone fluoride content (0.082%, N < 0.10). bone resorption as assessed on bone biopsy and by the measurement of markers of bone remodeling (serum procollagen type I C-terminal telopeptide and 24 hr urinary cross-laps to creatinine ratio) was increased. This latter finding was not necessarily due to axial osteomalacia and could be the consequence of moderate phosphate diabetes. The patient was treated with calcitriol which was promptly discontinued due to gastrointestinal symptoms and replaced by calcidiol without any significant effect on the low back pain.
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7/116. Hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis, jaccoud's arthropathy, valvular heart disease, and reversible tracheal stenosis: a surfeit of syndromes.

    We describe a patient who, during 29 years of observation, manifested polyarthralgia and polyarthritis leading to progressive deformity of the joints of hands and feet (without loss of cartilage or erosion of bone); persistent urticaria made worse by cold and accompanied by hypocomplementemia; and progressive cardiac valvular disease with mitral and aortic stenosis and regurgitation. In 1996, she developed subglottic tracheal stenosis that resolved by the end of 1997 without a change in treatment, which has consisted of low dose azathioprine, glucocorticoid, and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Tests for cryoprecipitable protein, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies, antinuclear antibody, and rheumatoid factor were negative. skin biopsy was consistent with "leukocytoclastic vasculitis." The pathogenesis of this remarkable combination of syndromes is unknown.
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8/116. Metastatic lesions in the joint associated with acute inflammatory arthritis after dendritic cell immunotherapy for metastatic melanoma.

    A 47 year old man undergoing immunotherapy for metastatic melanoma with autologous dendritic cells pulsed with autologous tumour peptide and hepatitis b surface antigen developed acute left ankle arthritis. gout and acute infection were excluded, and an autoimmune aetiology or occult metastasis were considered. The arthritis initially subsided with indomethacin, but the symptoms recurred 2 months later, and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated metastatic melanoma of the left talus. Immunohistochemical staining of a cerebral metastatic deposit biopsied 1 week after the onset of arthritis demonstrated T-cell and macrophage infiltration of the tumour. In addition, the patient developed melanoma-specific delayed type hypersensitivity and cytotoxic T-cell responses after vaccination. Thus, the monoarthritis represented an 'appropriate' inflammatory response directed against metastatic melanoma.
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keywords = macrophage
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9/116. Scapho-capitate fracture syndrome. A case report.

    A rare injury of the wrist, scapho-capitate fracture syndrome, in a young patient is reported. Despite early recognition of the injury and surgical intervention, the scaphoid fracture did not unite and another attempt to achieve union with bone grafting and internal fixation also failed. The wrist continued to be painful and stiff. Radiographs of the wrist, 18 months after the injury, showed nonunion of the scaphoid, avascular necrosis of the scaphoid and the lunate and carpal collapse with midcarpal joint arthritis. Due to persistent and disabling symptoms arthrodesis of the wrist had to be carried out. Possible causes for the bad outcome after this injury are discussed. We recommend open reduction for the fracture of the capitate and open reduction and internal fixation with primary bone grafting for a displaced comminuted scaphoid fracture.
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10/116. Simultaneous management of ipsilateral gonarthritis and ununited tibial stress fracture: combined total knee arthroplasty and internal fixation.

    Nonunion of a proximal tibial stress fracture is rare and can be difficult to manage, especially if associated with ipsilateral gonarthritis. Three patients with nonunion of a proximal tibial stress fracture adjacent to an arthritic knee joint were managed by performing simultaneous total knee arthroplasty and internal fixation of the fracture site. The technique involved performing a total knee arthroplasty with angular correction at the site of the extra-articular and intra-articular deformity, bone grafting of the nonunion site, and stabilization of the fracture with a long uncemented intramedullary stemmed tibial component and a unicortical plate. Fibular ostectomy was required during the index surgery in 2 cases to achieve the desired angular correction. In all 3 patients, healing of the nonunion site and limb realignment was achieved. There were no complications or infections associated with the surgery. All patients progressed to full weight bearing at 3 months and had clinical and radiographic union of the nonunion site at 6 months.
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