Cases reported "Arthritis, Reactive"

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11/90. Achilles tendinitis as the presentation form of Lofgren's syndrome.

    Lofgren's syndrome is characterised by bilateral hilar adenopathy arthritis and erythema nodosum. Achilles tendinitis as the presentation form of Lofgren's syndrome is very unusual. Herein we present a case of bilateral achilles tendinitis as the presentation form of Lofgren's syndrome. ( info)

12/90. Salmonella septic arthritis in a patient with acute idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura treated with steroid.

    Salmonella has three clinical presentations: self-limiting gastroenteritis, a systemic syndrome (enteric or typhoid fever), and bacteremia with focal infection. Hematogenous infections can cause focal lesions, but unusual manifestations occur more often when predisposing factors such as T cell defect, hemolytic disorders (sickle cell disease, malaria) or trauma are present. Salmonella tend to invade bones and joints. There is no mention of acute idiopathic (immune) thrombocytopenic purpura as a predisposing factor for salmonella septic arthritis; however there are reports about the importance of platelets for the immune response. Here we present a case of salmonella enteritidis septic arthritis following acute idiopathic (immune) thrombocytopenic purpura in a 15-year-old female patient who has been on steroid therapy for the last two weeks. ( info)

13/90. Evaluating patients with arthritis of recent onset: studies in pathogenesis and prognosis.

    Inflammatory synovitis of recent onset poses a diagnostic and prognostic challenge to primary care physicians and rheumatologists. A lack of understanding of the underlying etiologic and pathogenic processes limits the ability to distinguish forms of arthritis that follow a benign, self-limiting course from forms that proceed to an aggressive, erosive disease requiring intensive immunosuppressive therapy. It is estimated that between 30% and 40% of patients presenting with early synovitis have disease that remains unclassified. Using data from a cohort of patients with early synovitis and reviewing current literature, we discuss investigational approaches toward a new classification of patients with early synovitis. Although a lack of understanding of this heterogeneous clinical syndrome has led clinicians to take a largely empirical approach to treatment thus far, the evolving awareness of disease predisposition at a genetic level and the expanding ability to specifically manipulate biological pathways may ultimately change the approach to this clinical problem. JAMA. 2000;284:2368-2373. ( info)

14/90. Reiter's syndrome following intravesical BCG immunotherapy.

    A 71 year old woman developed conjunctivitis, asymmetrical oligoarthritis, and cystitis (Reiter's syndrome) secondary to intravesical BCG treatment for transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. She received oral prednisolone, izoniazid, and pyridoxine and made a full recovery. Increasing use of BCG as immunotherapy will lead to an increase in the incidence of BCG associated reactive arthritis. Prompt recognition and early diagnosis will facilitate treatment and recovery. ( info)

15/90. Chronic destructive oligoarthritis associated with propionibacterium acnes in a female patient with acne vulgaris: septic-reactive arthritis?

    propionibacterium acnes is an anaerobic bacillus implicated in certain chronic arthritides. This report describes an HLA-B27 17-year-old woman with acne vulgaris who presented with rapidly destructive arthritis in the left shoulder as well as an evolving left subclavicular adenopathy. One year later, arthritis was detected in the left knee; the inflammatory synovial fluid was sterile. growth of P acnes was observed in cultures of the shoulder synovium and lymph nodes, but polymerase chain reaction was negative for borrelia, chlamydia, and Ureaplasma dna. Three months of treatment with amoxicillin and rifampicin led to clinical disappearance of the oligoarthritis, but arthritis recurred in the left knee after discontinuation of therapy. On biopsy, bacteria were undetectable in the knee synovium, but chronic arthritis was evident histologically. Antibiotics were reintroduced for 12 months and were again effective against the clinical symptoms. Although the asymmetry, histologic features, arthritis-acne association, and genetic predisposition of this chronic destructive oligoarthritis would seem to indicate a reactive arthropathy, the isolation of P acnes from 2 distinct specimens prompted us to propose calling this a case of septic-reactive arthritis, which is further supported by the absence of progression after antibiotic therapy and the persistence of the rheumatism. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the efficacy of prolonged antibiotic therapy on the joint manifestations of chronic rheumatism associated with acne. ( info)

16/90. arthritis related to ileal pouchitis following total proctocolectomy for ulcerative colitis.

    OBJECTIVE: To draw attention to arthritis that developed in patients who underwent total proctocolectomy with ileal pouch construction for ulcerative colitis (UC). methods: The course of 4 patients who developed arthritis for the first time after ileal-anal pouch anastomosis is described. In addition, the relationship to the chronic inflammation of the pouch-pouchitis-is discussed. RESULTS: The clinical manifestations were very similar to seronegative arthritis affecting mainly the joints of the lower extremities. It was accompanied by enthesopathy (2 patients) and by sacroiliitis (2 patients). All had active pouchitis. The abnormal laboratory test results were nonspecific, indicating chronic inflammation. All 4 patients tested negative for human leukocyte antigen (HLA) B27, and none had other concomitant extraintestinal manifestations. steroids rapidly improved both the arthritis and pouchitis; however, disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs were required to maintain remission with minimal daily steroids. Flares of the arthritis were always associated with active pouchitis, but the opposite was not necessarily true. CONCLUSIONS: arthritis related to ileal pouchitis after total colectomy for UC has many similarities to the arthritis associated with inflammatory bowel disease and should be added to the list of enteropathic arthropathies. ( info)

17/90. Extracolonic manifestations of clostridium difficile infections. Presentation of 2 cases and review of the literature.

    clostridium difficile is most commonly associated with colonic infection. It may, however, also cause disease in a variety of other organ systems. Small bowel involvement is often associated with previous surgical procedures on the small intestine and is associated with a significant mortality rate (4 of 7 patients). When associated with bacteremia, the infection is, as expected, frequently polymicrobial in association with usual colonic flora. The mortality rate among patients with C. difficile bacteremia is 2 of 10 reported patients. Visceral abscess formation involves mainly the spleen, with 1 reported case of pancreatic abscess formation. Frequently these abscesses are only recognized weeks to months after the onset of diarrhea or other colonic symptoms. C. difficile-related reactive arthritis is frequently polyarticular in nature and is not related to the patient's underlying HLA-B27 status. Fever is not universally present. The most commonly involved joints are the knee and wrist (involved in 18 of 36 cases). Reactive arthritis begins an average of 11.3 days after the onset of diarrhea and is a prolonged illness, taking an average of 68 days to resolve. Other entities, such as cellulitis, necrotizing fasciitis, osteomyelitis, and prosthetic device infections, can also occur. Localized skin and bone infections frequently follow traumatic injury, implying the implantation of either environmental or the patient's own C. difficile spores with the subsequent development of clinical infection. It is noteworthy that except for cases involving the small intestine and reactive arthritis, most of the cases of extracolonic C. difficile disease do not appear to be strongly related to previous antibiotic exposure. The reason for this is unclear. We hope that clinicians will become more aware of these extracolonic manifestations of infection, so that they may be recognized and treated promptly and appropriately. Such early diagnosis may also serve to prevent extensive and perhaps unnecessary patient evaluations, thus improving resource utilization and shortening length of hospital stay. ( info)

18/90. Human immunodeficiency virus associated spondyloarthropathy: pathogenic insights based on imaging findings and response to highly active antiretroviral treatment.

    The pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) associated spondyloarthropathy (SpA) is poorly understood. In this case report a patient is described with severe hiv associated reactive arthritis, who on magnetic resonance imaging and sonographic imaging of inflamed knees had extensive polyenthesitis and adjacent osteitis. The arthritis deteriorated despite conventional antirheumatic treatment, but improved dramatically after highly active antiretroviral treatment, which was accompanied by a significant rise in CD4 T lymphocyte counts. The implications of the localisation of pathology and effect of treatment for pathogenic models of SpA and rheumatoid arthritis in the setting of hiv infection are discussed. ( info)

19/90. arthritis following recombinant outer surface protein A vaccination for lyme disease.

    As more individuals receive outer surface protein A (OspA) vaccination, adverse effects not detected during phase III clinical trials may become apparent. Although arthritis has been described following other human vaccines, we found no reports of human cases after lyme disease vaccination. We describe 4 males (2 children, 2 adults) who developed arthritis following recombinant OspA vaccination. The potential arthritogenic effect of OspA suggested by in vitro and animal studies finds a clinical correlate in these 4 cases. ( info)

20/90. ureaplasma urealyticum as a possible cause of reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome.

    We describe the cases of two patients with clinical and radiological findings of the reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome (RSDS) in whom the history of a previous genito-urinary inflammation and high levels of ESR lead us to suspect a hidden reactive arthritis. However, instrumental examinations showed a characteristic picture of RSDS without evident signs of arthritis. In both patients we decided a treatment with quinolones because of detection of an ureaplasma urealyticum genito-urinary infection. This brought to complete remission of the joint symptoms in a few days. Our findings suggest that ureaplasma urealyticum can cause and sustain a RSDS picture, maybe with a reactive arthritis-like mechanism, and that an antibiogram-driven antimicrobial treatment can be rapidly effective against this disorder. ( info)
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