Cases reported "arthropathy, neurogenic"

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1/145. Neuropathic arthropathy: a forgotten diagnosis? Two recent cases involving the hip.

    Two cases of neuropathic arthropathy of the hip are reported. One was the first manifestation of tabes dorsalis in a 74-year-old man, whereas the second occurred in a 47-year-old woman with a history of spina bifida and L2-L5 epidural lipoma. Radiographic joint destruction occurred within five and three months, respectively. The main clinical and radiological features of neuropathic arthropathy are reviewed, and diagnostic pitfalls are discussed. There are no specific laboratory tests or histologic findings. This now rare condition should be routinely considered in patients with severe joint destruction contrasting with minimal pain. The reasons for the decision to use trochanteric-iliac coaptation in one of our patients and a wait-and-see approach in the other are explained. The literature is reviewed. Ten cases treated by joint replacement have been reported. However, neither joint replacement nor arthrodesis seem capable of restoring satisfactory hip function. ( info)

2/145. The management of neurogenic arthropathy: a tale of two charcots.

    The pathogenesis and natural history of Charcot neuroarthropathy is often poorly understood. The diagnosis and treatment of Charcot feet can also prove difficult. Two case histories are used to illustrate the key points in the management of this potentially devastating condition. ( info)

3/145. Healing of Charcot's joint by pamidronate infusion.

    Treatment of Charcot's joints remains difficult, and involves prolonged periods without weightbearing, immobilization, and surgical salvage procedures to avoid amputation. We describe the efficacy of pamidronate in treating a patient with Charcot's joint, due to hereditary sensory neuropathy, that caused loss of pain sensation. The bone and joint destruction in our patient's left foot was stopped by bisphosphonate treatment, and signs of a reconstructive healing process were observed on the control radiographs. The treatment was administered intravenously every 4 months for 2 years, without restriction on weightbearing, since the patient had refused a plaster cast and an orthotic device. This observation suggests that treatment with bisphosphonates should be used before, or in combination with, other treatment in such cases. ( info)

4/145. Charcot joint in idiopathic sensorimotor neuropathy.

    Charcot joint or neuropathic arthropathy is described in certain neurological conditions. We report the case of a man who presented with a swollen ankle 10 days after a long walk, which rapidly progressed to a Charcot joint. A neurological examination revealed areflexia and insensitivity to temperature and pain. Electromyographic analysis showed a mixed sensorimotor polyneuropathy. Besides axonal loss and demyelinisation on sural nerve biopsy, prominent loss of unmyelinated fibres was demonstrated. Despite extensive investigations, no definite cause for this neuropathy could be found. ( info)

5/145. Destructive hip disease complicating traumatic paraplegia.

    Recent progress in the management of spinal cord injury has provided longer survivals, and as a result the incidence of secondary bone and joint disorders has increased. Joint lesions due to syringomyelia complicating a cervical spinal cord injury are the most common of these disorders. We report a case of destructive hip disease 7 years after an injury responsible for complete paraplegia with sensory loss. The joint lesions were painless, and there was no local evidence of inflammation. hip radiographs disclosed atrophic osteoarthropathy with complete destruction of the femoral neck and head. This unusual case raises questions about the pathophysiology of neuropathic osteoarthropathy in paraplegics. ( info)

6/145. Progressive erosive arthropathy with contractures, multicentric osteolysis-like changes, characteristic craniofacial appearance, and dermatological abnormalities: a new syndrome?

    We report a 27-year-old man with an apparently new syndromic form of progressive erosive arthropathy and contractures of small and large joints associated with mild epiphyseal changes, normal vertebrae, and generalized osteopenia. The patient had a characteristic craniofacial appearance, dermatological abnormalities, and normal intelligence. The head was large with frontal bossing. The face was elongated with malar hypoplasia, thin upper lip, prominent lower jaw, high arched palate, dental malocclusion, and prominent ears with absent ear lobules. Dermatological abnormalities included malar erythema and facial telangiectasia together with multiple nevi and lentigenes all over the body. Pseudorheumatoid arthropathy, spondyloarthropathy, and Borrone dermatocardioskeletal syndrome were considered in the differential diagnosis and were excluded. Also, no similar cases have been found in POSSUM or the london Dysmorphology databases. ( info)

7/145. Painless destruction of the shoulder joint: a case report.

    A case of painless destruction of the shoulder joint is reported for its rarity and unusual presentation as a neuroarthropathic joint with no evidence of neurological disease. A differential diagntosis of Gorham-Stout syndrome and avascular necrosis was discussed. ( info)

8/145. Neuropathic arthropathy of the elbow. A report of five cases.

    BACKGROUND: Neuropathic arthropathy of the elbow is rare and characterized by a painless but unstable articulation. The functional capacity of patients with this condition has not been reviewed in detail. methods: Five male patients, with an average age of fifty-one years, were treated for neuropathic arthropathy of the elbow. The underlying conditions associated with the arthropathy included syringomyelia, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, end-stage renal failure, and two cases of polyneuropathy of unknown cause. Four patients sought medical attention after a specific traumatic event. Peripheral sensory and motor dysfunction was present in each patient. Radiographs of the elbow revealed dislocation, fracture fragmentation, and heterotopic ossification. Our management of the neuropathic elbows centered on maintenance of a functional arc of motion through physical therapy aimed at regaining muscle strength and the use of orthoses for support. Operative treatment was performed for an associated ulnar or radial nerve compression syndrome in three patients, and an open reduction and internal fixation of an unstable proximal ulnar nonunion associated with loose implants was performed in one. RESULTS: The patients were followed for an average of nineteen months, with a range of twelve to thirty-six months. All patients had a pain-free elbow with a functional range of motion at the most recent follow-up examination, and none wished to have further treatment. The operatively treated ulnar nonunion united successfully. All three patients treated surgically for an associated nerve compression syndrome had recovery of nerve function. CONCLUSION: In the face of instability and gross distortion of the joint, the patients in this series demonstrated remarkably good function. ( info)

9/145. Acute Charcot foot changes versus osteomyelitis: does Tc-99m HMPAO labeled leukocytes scan differentiate?

    osteomyelitis often complicates a diabetic neuropathic foot, leading to amputation, decreased function, and quality of life. Therefore, early detection and treatment are paramount. Furthermore, neuroarthropathic (Charcot) changes in the foot often resemble infection and must be differentiated. Currently, the Tc-99m HMPAO Labeled leukocytes Scan is considered to be the most reliable noninvasive imaging modality of choice in determining Charcot foot changes versus osteomyelitis. The purpose of this article is to alert the clinician that although the Tc-99m HMPAO Labeled leukocytes Scan may be the second most reliable test next to bone biopsy for determining osteomyelitis, false positives do occur. ( info)

10/145. Surgically induced Charcot's foot.

    The neuropathic foot has the potential to develop Charcot arthropathy. This study describes multiple cases of Charcot's foot following surgery. Of all the cases described, only one patient had any preexisting Charcot deformity or acute Charcot event. The study concludes that alterations of mechanical forces in the foot play an important role in triggering an acute Charcot episode. ( info)
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