Cases reported "Articulation Disorders"

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1/9. Phonological systems of a set of Putonghua-speaking twins.

    Impaired phonology is reported to be the most salient characteristic of the communication profiles of twin children. However, little is known about the phonological development of twins speaking languages other than English. This case study described the phonological systems of a set of Putonghua-speaking twins, using quantitative and qualitative measures. The analyses indicated that the phonological systems of the co-twins were not identical, though both evidenced characteristics of delayed or disordered phonological development and shared some error patterns. They comprehended both adult and their sibling's phonological forms, suggesting a dual phonological representation in their mental lexicon for some words. These results confirmed Dodd and McEvoy's (1994) research findings for English-speaking twins.
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keywords = communication
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2/9. Speech patterns in Kabuki make-up syndrome: a case report.

    The case of a girl aged 3 years and 8 months with Kabuki make-up syndrome is reported. At presentation, she had normal cognitive functioning, and she also had a history of otitis media, a submucous cleft palate, and some hypotonia. Language testing showed normal receptive skills and good expressive vocabulary but poor morphosyntactic abilities. Speech analysis showed that she was capable of producing most of the sounds of her native language but demonstrated high variability in production of the sounds. In addition, she inconsistently simplified words by application of several phonologic processes. Possible explanations for the communication problems demonstrated are discussed.
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keywords = communication
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3/9. From phonological therapy to phonological awareness.

    Children with speech difficulties often have delayed phonological awareness development and associated literacy problems. Speech-language pathologists (S-LPs) typically use phonological and articulatory approaches in their treatment of such children. However, it is unclear to what extent phonological awareness training, originally designed to promote literacy skills, might also improve children's speech output. This article adopts a psycholinguistic approach to examine the nature and development of phonological awareness and to explore the relationship between phonological awareness training and phonological therapy. The role of phonological awareness in predicting literacy development in children is discussed, and principles for analyzing the psycholinguistic properties of therapy tasks are presented. Phonological awareness cannot be dealt with independently as it is an integral part of articulation and phonological intervention. Further, phonological awareness is a necessary "on-line" skill in the dynamic communication process between therapist and child. Failure to take this into account will result in inappropriately targeted therapy and pragmatic breakdown between the child and S-LP.
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keywords = communication
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4/9. A case of cortical deafness and anarthria.

    Generally, cortical deafness is not complicated by anarthria and cortical anarthria does not affect auditory perception. We report a case of simultaneous progressive cortical deafness and anarthria. At the age of 70 years, the patient, a woman, noticed hearing problems when using the telephone, which worsened rapidly over the next 2 years. She was then referred to our hospital for further examinations of her hearing problems. Auditory tests revealed threshold elevation in the low and middle frequencies on pure-tone audiometry, a maximum speech discrimination of 25% and normal otoacoustic emissions and auditory brainstem, middle- and long-latency responses. An articulation test revealed abnormal pronunciation. Because of these problems only written and not verbal communication was possible; her ability to read and write was unimpaired. She showed no other neurological problems. brain MRI demonstrated atrophic changes of the auditory cortex and Wernicke's language center and PET suggested low uptake of (18F) 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose around the Sylvian fissures in both hemispheres. Neurologically, the patient was suspected of having progressive aphasia or frontotemporal dementia. Her cortical deafness and anarthria are believed to be early signs of this entity.
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keywords = communication
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5/9. Speech-language and hearing findings in the cardio-facial-cutaneous syndrome.

    BACKGROUND: Cardio-facial-cutaneous syndrome. AIM: To describe the clinical findings of a patient with cardio-facial-cutaneous syndrome and to characterize her communication. METHOD: To investigate the following areas: genetic, speech-language and hearing, otolaryngological, and psychological. RESULTS: Cardiac, cutaneous, and craniofacial alterations were observed, as well as cognitive deficits and significant language impairment with the absence of oral speech. CONCLUSION: The importance of assessing these patients is highlighted, for diagnostic and intervention purposes, so that the work developed in the speech and language therapy can be better directed.
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keywords = communication
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6/9. Facilitating conversation through self-initiated augmentative communication treatment.

    We examined the conversational skills of 2 adult males with severe motor and speech deficits resulting from cerebral palsy. A multiple baseline design across subjects was used to determine the effectiveness of an intervention strategy designed to teach them to use an augmentative communication system (touch Talker) independently. The dependent measure was the number of conversation initiations relative to conversation reactions during spontaneous communication across baseline and treatment. The treatment included specific training on using the augmentative system to participate in communication. Once the intervention began, the production of conversation initiations accelerated at a rapid rate. The treatment program was effective in training the subjects to use the augmentative system to increase conversation participation. These results demonstrate that training on the operation of the device alone is not sufficient to ensure improvement in conversation performance, and that it is important to incorporate direct conversational treatment when providing instruction on the use of augmentative communication systems for severely speech-impaired individuals.
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ranking = 8
keywords = communication
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7/9. The occurrence of developmental apraxia of speech in a mild articulation disorder: a case study.

    Although Developmental Apraxia of Speech (DAS) often is considered a severe communication disorder, speech-language pathology literature supports the idea that DAS also can be exhibited in children with mildly disordered articulation. The case study is that of an elementary age client with a seemingly mild "r" articulation problem but who also presented characteristics consistent with DAS. awareness of the possible presence of DAS when assessing and planning remediation for clients exhibiting mild articulation problems could increase the effectiveness of our professional services to these children.
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keywords = communication
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8/9. rehabilitation of communication impairment in dystonia musculorum deformans.

    Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) aids were used in three young, intellectually normal patients with dystonia musculorum deformans (DMD) who had severe speech and writing impediments. These aids included speech therapy, communication boards, and voice synthesizers for verbal communication and typewriters, memowriters, and computer software and printers for written communication. At times customized accessing was needed which required specific adaptive modifications. Implementation of the AAC aids system was determined effective for DMD patients in view of the intellect-sparing nature of the disorder. Improvement was hampered by the progressive nature of the disease and by the emotional stress of accepting the long-term use of AAC. Correct and early diagnosis of communication impediments are crucial for the appropriate AAC aids prescription and implementation. An AAC protocol is suggested to meet the special communication needs of DMD patients.
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ranking = 10
keywords = communication
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9/9. Treatment of dysarthria: a case report.

    There is little information available to the speech clinician on management of dysarthria. This article presents the rationale, procedural outline, and results of an approach to communication training for one dysarthic subject in view of suggestions made by Darley et al. (1975).
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keywords = communication
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