Cases reported "Ascites"

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1/13. Markedly elevated CA125 in hepatic cirrhosis: two case illustrations and review of the literature.

    CA125 is the most widely used tumor marker presently available for use in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer. Although elevated in a high percentage of patients with ovarian cancer, serum CA125 levels have also been detected in patients with numerous benign and malignant nongynecologic disorders, including various diseases of the liver. Despite this well-publicized fact, it has become apparent that the association between CA125 elevation, particularly the degree of elevation, and liver disease may not be as widely recognized as one would suspect. When marked CA125 elevations occur, diagnostic confusion is common. We describe two cases illustrative of this point. Both cases involve middle-aged women who presented with massive ascites and due to markedly elevated serum CA125 levels underwent exploratory laparotomy with hysterectomy and/or bilateral salpingo-oopherectomy before their referral to our center. Because preservation of a woman's reproductive organs is a significant concern, it is imperative that both primary care physicians and specialists are aware of such associations and the proper use of tumor markers.
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2/13. A patient presenting with a pelvic mass, elevated CA-125, and fever.

    BACKGROUND: Tuberculous peritonitis is a rare event which can mimic advanced stage ovarian cancer. A pelvic mass and an elevated CA-125 is suggestive of an ovarian malignancy; however, benign conditions may be discovered, especially in the premenopausal patient. CASE: A patient with a pelvic mass, ascites, and an elevated CA-125 underwent an exploratory laparotomy for presumed ovarian cancer. Final pathology revealed pelvic tuberculosis without any pulmonary involvement. Acid-fast bacilli were confirmed with polymerase chain reaction in the surgical specimen. DISCUSSION: Pelvic tuberculosis is an uncommon gynecologic condition that presents with ascites, a pelvic mass, and fever. An elevated CA-125 is not specific for ovarian malignancy.
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3/13. Peritoneal tuberculosis with pelvic abdominal mass, ascites and elevated CA 125 mimicking advanced ovarian carcinoma: a series of 10 cases.

    Ten patients with peritoneal tuberculosis who were operated on for suspected advanced ovarian cancer during a 5-year period were analyzed. These 10 cases constituted 1.4% of the 728 new gynecologic cancer cases diagnosed and treated at our department during the same time period. Data were obtained from patients' files and pathology reports. The mean age of cases was 40.6 /- 6.1 (median 37; range 18-72). ascites was present together with ill-defined nodularities or thickening in the Douglas pouch and/or in the adnexal areas on pelvic examination in all patients but three, who presented with well-demarcated adnexal masses of about 5 cm in diameter. All patients had elevated serum CA 125 levels with a median of 331 U/ml, (40-560 U/ml). Ultrasound and abdominopelvic CT examinations revealed omental and mesenteric thickening in addition to ascites in all patients, cystic ovarian masses or ovarian enlargement in five, and peritoneal implants in two. Abdominal paracentesis performed in the six cases in whom the findings were felt to be most inconclusive for the diagnosis of ovarian cancer revealed clear exudative fluid with benign cells. Mycobacteria could not be demonstrated on direct preparations. tuberculosis was diagnosed at laparotomy in all. patients received antituberculous therapy and serum CA 125 levels returned to normal within 2 months after the beginning of treatment. This case series demonstrates a high rate of misdiagnosis between advanced ovarian cancer and peritoneal tuberculosis. Whereas abdominal paracentesis is useless in ruling out peritoneal tuberculosis, and serum CA 125 levels are not helpful in the differential diagnosis, the latter marker may be useful in the follow-up of patients.
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4/13. Multiparameter flow cytometry in the diagnosis of a gynaecologic double tumor: a case report.

    PURPOSE. An uncommon clinical presentation of metastatic tumor will often lead to additional diagnostic examinations. The patient of the present study was known to have endometrial cancer which was thought to be limited to the endometrium. Three months postoperatively, she developed ascites due to spread of the tumor, which is rarely seen in low-stage endometrial cancer. METHOD. Multiparameter flow cytometry using both cell phenotype information and dna ploidy was performed. RESULTS. Retrospectively, the patient was diagnosed as having a dna-diploid epithelial tumor of the endometrium as well as a dna-aneuploid epithelial tumor in the left fallopian tube. It was shown that 3 months after primary surgery she developed ascites caused by metastatic tumor from the primary fallopian tube cancer. CONCLUSION. The complete diagnosis was made using multiparameter flow cytometry which, at present, is not routinely applied in gynecologic pathology.
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5/13. Bilateral ovarian fibromatosis presenting with ascites and hirsutism.

    BACKGROUND: Ovarian fibromatosis is a very rare nonneoplastic disease. Due to the rarity and atypical clinical presentations, they may give rise to a misdiagnosis of malignancy and unnecessary extensive surgical interventions. literature lacks definitive data about this rare disease and its preoperative evaluations. MRI together with the intraoperative frozen section may help us to define the benign nature of the disease. In this report, we aimed to review the literature and give a highlight to the gynecologic oncologists about this rare disease. CASE history: A 19-year-old female patient admitted to our hospital with the complaints of menstrual irregularity, hirsutism, and increased abdominal girth. physical examination revealed bilateral ovarian mass, hirsutism, and ascites. serum CA-125 levels were slightly elevated. Preoperative MRI study showed bilateral hypointense lobulated ovarian masses. With the initial diagnosis of ovarian tumor, we performed explorative laparotomy and excised both masses. Final pathology was reported as bilateral ovarian fibromatosis. CONCLUSION: Ovarian fibromatosis commonly presents with ascites and solid pelvic mass and can be misdiagnosed as a malignant ovarian tumor. In young patients, clinicians should consider ovarian fibromatosis in differential diagnosis of pelvic mass. Preoperative MRI findings and intraoperative frozen examination may be used to avoid unnecessary aggressive surgical management.
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6/13. Recurrent peritonitis with massive ascites as the initial manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus: report of one case.

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) rarely presents with massive ascites secondary to severe peritonitis before the occurrence of major diagnostic features. We described a 13-year-old girl who developed four episodes of severe abdominal pain with massive ascites. During the first episode, the patient experienced deterioration with massive ascites over a 3-day period, after a 3-month history of intermittent abdominal pain. This episode resolved under conservative treatment. During the second episode, her acute abdominal findings mimicked appendicitis or gynecologic emergency. An exploratory laparotomy was initially planned, but not performed. thrombocytopenia postponed the surgical intervention and led to further investigation. Autoimmune studies confirmed SLE and prompted steroid therapy, which rapidly improved her painful ascites and spared an unnecessary operation. After improvement of peritonitis with ascites, and following discharge, other major clinical features of SLE ensued. The third episode of peritonitis with massive ascites responded well to steroid pulse therapy. The fourth episode of ascites was accompanied by intracranial hemorrhage that led to her death. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of recurrent peritonitis with massive ascites as the initial and major manifestation of SLE in a pediatric patient.
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keywords = gynecologic
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7/13. Primary ovarian angiosarcoma presenting as malignant cells in ascites: case report and review of the literature.

    Primary angiosarcoma of the ovary is a rare tumor, with less than 25 cases reported in the literature. These tumors are thought to arise from carcinosarcomas, teratomas or the ovarian vasculature, and occur at any age. The prognosis is dismal in the majority of cases. We present the case of a 19-year old female who presented with abdominal distention and abdominal pain. Tapping of peritoneal effusion showed groups of pleomorphic cells that were negative for epithelial and germ cell markers. immunohistochemistry performed on the surgical specimen of the ovary, and subsequently on the effusion specimen showed staining for endothelial markers. The patient was treated post-operatively with chemotherapy, but died one year following diagnosis. This is the first reported case of an ovarian angiosarcoma that metastasized to the peritoneal cavity, with a resulting malignant effusion. Despite the rarity of metastasis from gynecological sarcomas in effusions, this possibility needs to be included in the differential diagnosis of malignant effusions that are negative for epithelial and germ cell markers.
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8/13. Ovarian carcinoma in two patients with chronic liver disease.

    ascites is a common and debilitating complication of cirrhosis. However, patients with chronic liver disease are not spared from other causes of ascites and physicians should be careful not to miss an underlying malignancy. Ovarian cancer is an insidious disease, which is difficult to diagnose and it ranks first in mortality among all gynecological cancers. Here, we present two cases of patients with chronic liver disease that developed ascites not simply because of cirrhosis but as a manifestation of ovarian cancer. We would like to emphasize that the causes of ascites, other than the liver itself, should not be overlooked in patients with chronic liver disease.
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9/13. Well differentiated mesothelioma complicating endometrial carcinoma; a case report.

    Peritoneal mesothelioma is a rare cancer of the abdominal cavity which has low malignant potential. Peritoneal mesothelioma can mimic other types of gynecologic malignancies. Careful clinical and pathologic evaluation is essential for an accurate diagnosis and treatment.
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10/13. Treatment of malignant ascites with allogeneic and autologous lymphokine-activated killer cells.

    Two cases of peritonitis carcinomatosa with gynecological cancer, which did not respond to conventional treatment, were treated by intraperitoneal adoptive immunotherapy with allogeneic or autologous lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells plus interleukin-2. In case 1, reduction of acute ascites and disappearance of malignant cells from the peritoneal fluid and decreased levels of tumor markers (CA12-5 and CA19-9) were demonstrated during the treatment. In case 2, which also received additional treatment for pleuritis carcinomatosa, reduction of ascites and pleural effusion and disappearance of malignant cells from the pleural fluid were noted. In these cases allogeneic LAK therapy was well tolerated. This therapy did not prolong the patients' lives, but the findings indicate that it had appreciable local antitumor effects on peritonitis and pleuritis carcinomatosa in these patients with gynecological cancer.
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