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1/55. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis due to aspergillus niger without bronchial asthma.

    A 65-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a dry cough and pulmonary infiltrates. Chest radiograph and CT revealed mucoid impaction and consolidations. Peripheral blood eosinophilia and elevated serum IgE were observed. aspergillus niger was cultured repeatedly from her sputum, but A. fumigatus was not detected. Immediate skin test and specific IgE (RAST) to Aspergillus antigen were positive. Precipitating antibodies were confirmed against A. niger antigen, but not against A. fumigatus antigen. She had no asthmatic symptoms, and showed no bronchial hyperreactivity to methacholine. Thus, this case was diagnosed as allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) without bronchial asthma due to A. niger, an organism rarely found in ABPA. The administration of prednisone improved the symptoms and corrected the abnormal laboratory findings.
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2/55. Severe allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in an infant with cystic fibrosis and her asthmatic father.

    An infant with cystic fibrosis and her asthmatic father were diagnosed as suffering from allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). cystic fibrosis was diagnosed in the infant at 6 weeks of age, and gene mutations were W1282X/G542X. She was diagnosed definitively as suffering from ABPA at age 3.5 years, but had suggestive symptoms from age 11 months. This may be the youngest age described to date for ABPA. The child responded well to systemic steroid therapy, but remained steroid-dependent over the next 4 years. Treatment with itraconazole enabled a marked reduction in steroid dosage. The father was an asthmatic, and a heterozygote for the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) mutation W1282X. He had a normal sweat test, atopy, and moderate reversible airway obstruction. There was no proven exposure to Aspergillus in the home environment. The importance of considering the diagnosis of ABPA even in infancy, the therapeutic dilemmas, and the possible role of abnormal CFTR function in the development of ABPA are discussed.
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3/55. Two year follow-up of a garbage collector with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA).

    BACKGROUND: Separate collection of biodegradable garbage and recyclable waste is expected to become mandatory in some western countries. A growing number of persons engaged in garbage collection and separation might become endangered by high loads of bacteria and fungi. Case history and examination A 29 year old garbage collector involved in emptying so-called biological garbage complained of dyspnea, fever, and flu-like symptoms during work beginning in the summer of 1992. Chest x-ray showed streaky shadows near both hili reaching into the upper regions. IgE- and IgG-antibodies (CAP, Pharmacia, sweden) were strongly positive for aspergillus fumigatus with 90.5 kU/L and 186%, respectively. Total-IgE was also strongly elevated with 5430 kU/L. Bronchial challenge testing with commercially available aspergillus fumigatus extract resulted in an immediate-type asthmatic reaction. Two years later he was still symptomatic and antibodies persisted at lower levels. CONCLUSIONS: Our diagnosis was allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) including asthmatic responses as well as hypersensitivity pneumonitis (extrinsic allergic alveolitis) due to exposure to moldy household waste. A growing number of persons engaged in garbage collection and handling are exposed and at risk to develop sensitization to fungi due to exposure to dust of biodegradable waste. Further studies are necessary to show if separate collection of biodegradable waste increases the health risks due to exposure to bacteria and fungi in comparison to waste collection without separation.
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4/55. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in two patients with cystic fibrosis.

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is hypersensitivity to aspergillus fumigatus which manifests as episodic wheezing, usually refractory to bronchodilator therapy, with fixed and transient pulmonary infiltrates, central bronchiectasis, blood eosinophilia, elevated serum IgE level, immediate skin reactivity to an A. fumigatus antigen and precipitating antibodies to A. fumigatus. It is an unusual complication of asthma and cystic fibrosis (CF). We present two cystic fibrosis patients with ABPA treated successfully with prednisone and, in Case 1 also with itraconazole. The physician should be alert to the possibility of ABPA whenever CF patients present with the new infiltrates, high serum total IgE and other positive parameters of A. fumigatus sensitization. Treatment with systemic steroids should be started in order to prevent irreversible lung damage.
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5/55. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis as presenting sign of cystic fibrosis in an elderly man.

    BACKGROUND: Although cystic fibrosis is the most common genetic disorder of children, its heterogeneous spectrum of severity lends itself to underdiagnosis in the older adult patient population where the index of suspicion is not high. methods: We report a 60-year-old Hispanic man with asthma who presented with progressive dyspnea and wheezing unresponsive to inhaled corticosteroid treatment. Additionally, he had clinical findings and a past history suggestive of cystic fibrosis. Skin testing, radiography and laboratory studies were completed to evaluate for allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and cystic fibrosis. RESULTS: Test results revealed peripheral eosinophilia and hyper IgE. Skin testing to aspergillus fumigatus (Af) was positive. IgG, IgM, and Af specific antibodies were present. High resolution CT scan showed central bronchiectasis. sweat tests were positive on two separate occasions and gene analysis showed our patient to have a positive gene mutation at D127ON/D127ON. CONCLUSION: cystic fibrosis should be suspected in the older adult patient with a compatible clinical presentation.
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6/55. Concomitant allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and allergic Aspergillus sinusitis: a review of an uncommon association*.

    BACKGROUND: Although thought to have common immunopathological processes, concomitant occurrence of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and allergic Aspergillus sinusitis (AAS) appears to be rarely reported as to date only five detailed case reports are available. OBJECTIVE: To present a review of seven cases of concomitant ABPA and AAS, three of whom were earlier reported for their unusual presentations. methods: patients with ABPA with nasal symptoms were evaluated radiologically. Consent was taken for antral wash and/or Caldwell-Luc operation in those with radiological evidence of sinusitis and the material was sent for histopathological and mycological studies. RESULTS: Of the 95 patients with ABPA, 22 had radiological evidence of sinusitis. Nine consented to surgery, seven of whom were diagnosed as concomitant AAS. Nasal symptoms preceded chest symptoms in two patients, vice versa in one and occurred simultaneously in four. Familial occurrence of ABPA, middle lobe syndrome and collapse with effusion along with an operated aspergilloma were seen in one patient each. Transient pulmonary infiltrates and central bronchiectasis were seen in all patients. Computed tomography of the paranasal sinuses, carried out in six patients, revealed mucosal thickening with hyperdense lesions, without any bony erosion or destruction. All patients had positive skin tests, positive precipitin study and raised total and specific IgE. Allergic mucin was seen in all patients, fungal hyphae in five, and culture grew Aspergillus spp. in four. All patients responded favourably to oral prednisolone. CONCLUSION: Concomitant occurrence of ABPA and AAS seems to be infrequently recognized. Since asthma and sinusitis are often seen by two different specialities, the occurrence of AAS in ABPA and ABPA in AAS may easily be overlooked.
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7/55. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis: a rare cause of pleural effusion.

    aspergillus fumigatus is one of the most ubiquitous of the airborne saprophytic fungi. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a syndrome seen in patients with asthma and cystic fibrosis, and is characterized by hypersensitivity to chronic colonization of the airways with A. fumigatus. We report the case of a patient with ABPA presenting with pleural effusion. A 27-year-old male was referred with recurrent right pleural effusion. Past medical history was remarkable for asthma, allergic sinusitis, and recurrent pleurisy. Investigations revealed peripheral eosinophilia with elevated serum immunoglobulin e and bilateral pleural effusions with bilateral upper lobe proximal bronchiectasis. Precipitating serum antibodies to A. fumigatus were positive and the A. fumigatus immediate skin test yielded a positive reaction. A diagnosis of ABPA associated with bilateral pleural effusions was made and the patient was commenced on prednisolone. At review, the patient's symptoms had considerably improved and his pleural effusions had resolved. ABPA may present with diverse atypical syndromes, including paratracheal and hilar adenopathy, obstructive lung collapse, pneumothorax and bronchopleural fistula, and allergic sinusitis. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is a rare cause of pleural effusion and must be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with a pleural effusion, in particular those with a history of asthma.
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8/55. Underlying chronic granulomatous disease in a patient with bronchocentric granulomatosis.

    We present a case of bronchocentric granulomatosis in a woman with no history of asthma who was colonised with Aspergillusfumigatus. A family history of chronic granulomatous disease prompted further testing that demonstrated severely depressed neutrophil oxidant production and gp91(phox) deficiency compatible with the X linked carrier state of chronic granulomatous disease. Only one report of the association of these two rare diseases has previously appeared in the literature. We postulate that an ineffective immune response led to the prolonged colonisation of Afumigatus resulting in a hypersensitivity reaction that was manifest clinically as bronchocentric granulomatosis.
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9/55. CT in childhood allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis.

    CT of the thorax done during acute severe asthma in two paediatric patients demonstrated central bronchiectasis, a sine qua non for the diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. bronchography, regarded as the gold standard, was done subsequently on recovery. A comparative segmental analysis revealed that CT was able to identify immediately 24 of 27 segments which showed central bronchiectasis on bronchography. early diagnosis with the aid of CT enabled immediate intervention which may have helped to prevent further lung damage in the paediatric patients.
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10/55. rhabdomyolysis after the administration of itraconazole to an asthmatic patient with bronchopulmonary aspergillosis.

    It is known that the coadministration of itraconazole with cholesterol-lowering statins may induce muscle damage. We describe the case of a patient with steroid-dependent asthma, steroid-induced severe myopathy and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis who developed rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure following a approximately 6-week treatment with itraconazole, even without the concomitant use of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors.
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