Cases reported "Asthma"

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1/302. mucoepidermoid tumor of trachea.

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the trachea is rare. Its occurence in a 14-year-old boy is reported here. This case illustrates the typical course of tracheal tumors with clinical manifestations of cough, wheezing, and hemoptysis, the intially reported normal chest roentgenogram, and the common failure to diagnose tracheal tumor for several months. Early use of tomographic studies and bronchoscopic examination in any person with recent onset of airway obstruction unresponsive to bronchodilator therapy is recommended.
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ranking = 1
keywords = airway obstruction, airway, obstruction
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2/302. New occupational allergen in citrus farmers: citrus red mite (Panonychus citri).

    BACKGROUND: There have been several reports of occupational allergy to spider mites (tetranychidae), but no published report has described citrus red mite (CRM, Panonychus citri)-induced occupational asthma confirmed by specific bronchial challenge. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinical and immunologic characteristics of CRM-induced occupational asthma. methods AND RESULTS: We encountered 16 cases of CRM-induced occupational asthma among farmers cultivating citrus fruits. Asthmatic attacks corresponded closely with their work on citrus farms. The mean duration of the latent period was 12.9 (range 7 to 20) years. During their first visit to our clinic, nine patients with FEV1 lower than 70% of predictive value showed reversible airway obstruction after inhalation of bronchodilator, and seven with FEV1 greater than 70% of predictive value showed airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. Fifteen of the 16 also complained of recurrent nasal symptoms, which had developed at an earlier time than the asthmatic symptoms. They showed strong positive reactions to CRM extract on skin prick test (A/H ratio > or = 1.0) and had high serum specific IgE antibody against CRM which was detected by ELISA. skin prick test with common inhalant allergens revealed that 10 had an isolated positive response to CRM with negative results to common inhalant allergens in their environment. The ELISA inhibition tests with CRM demonstrated significant inhibitions by CRM in a dose-dependent manner, while minimal inhibitions were noted by D. pteronyssinus and mugwort allergens. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that CRM could induce IgE-mediated bronchoconstriction in exposed workers on citrus farm.
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ranking = 1.2009872682932
keywords = airway obstruction, airway, obstruction
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3/302. Pseudo-steroid resistant asthma.

    BACKGROUND: Steroid resistant asthma (SRA) represents a small subgroup of those patients who have asthma and who are difficult to manage. Two patients with apparent SRA are described, and 12 additional cases who were admitted to the same hospital are reviewed. methods: The subjects were selected from a tertiary hospital setting by review of all asthma patients admitted over a two year period. Subjects were defined as those who failed to respond to high doses of bronchodilators and oral glucocorticosteroids, as judged by subjective assessment, audible wheeze on examination, and serial peak flow measurements. RESULTS: In 11 of the 14 patients identified there was little to substantiate the diagnosis of severe or steroid resistant asthma apart from symptoms and upper respiratory wheeze. Useful tests to differentiate this group of patients from those with severe asthma appear to be: the inability to perform reproducible forced expiratory manoeuvres, normal airway resistance, and a concentration of histamine causing a 20% fall in the forced expiratory volume (FEV1) being within the range for normal subjects (PC20). Of the 14 subjects, four were health care staff and two reported childhood sexual abuse. CONCLUSION: Such patients are important to identify as they require supportive treatment which should not consist of high doses of glucocorticosteroids and beta2 adrenergic agonists. Diagnoses other than asthma, such as gastro-oesophageal reflux, hyperventilation, vocal cord dysfunction and sleep apnoea, should be sought as these may be a cause of glucocorticosteroid treatment failure and pseudo-SRA, and may respond to alternative treatment.
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ranking = 0.20098726829321
keywords = airway
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4/302. Occupational asthma and contact dermatitis in a spray painter after introduction of an aziridine cross-linker.

    A 23-year-old spray painter developed contact dermatitis and respiratory difficulty characterized by small airways obstruction shortly after the polyfunctional aziridine cross-linker CX-100 began to be used in his workplace as a paint activator. The symptoms resolved after he was removed from the workplace and was treated with inhaled and topical steroids. Painters may have an increased risk of asthma due to exposure to a variety of agents, such as isocyanates, alkyd resins, and chromates. This case illustrates the importance of using appropriate work practices and personal protective equipment to minimize exposure. Occupational asthma is diagnosed by a history of work-related symptoms and exposure to known causative agents. The diagnosis is confirmed by serial pulmonary function testing or inhalational challenge testing. The risk of asthma attributable to occupational exposures is probably underappreciated due to underreporting and to inappropriate use of narrow definitions of exposure in epidemiologic studies of attributable risk.
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ranking = 0.22348045201675
keywords = airway, obstruction
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5/302. Reactive airways dysfunction syndrome following exposure to a fluorocarbon.

    This report describes the case of a 43-yr-old male who developed reactive airways dysfunction syndrome after exposure to a high level of bromotrifluoromethane (CF3Br, Halon 1301), a fluorocarbon widely used in automatic fire extinguishing systems. The patient was a previously healthy, nonatopic male, who developed wheezing and intermittent and reversible obstructive ventilatory impairment starting immediately after a large accidental nonfire-related release of CF3Br in a confined space.
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ranking = 1.004936341466
keywords = airway
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6/302. bronchiectasis: the 'other' obstructive lung disease.

    bronchiectasis belongs to the family of chronic obstructive lung diseases, even though it is much less common than asthma, chronic bronchitis, or emphysema. Clinical features of these entities overlap significantly. The triad of chronic cough, sputum production, and hemoptysis always should bring bronchiectasis to mind as a possible cause. Chronic airway inflammation leads to bronchial dilation and destruction, resulting in recurrent sputum overproduction and pneumonitis. Once the diagnosis is confirmed, any potential predisposing conditions should be aggressively sought. The relapsing nature of bronchiectasis can be controlled with antibiotics, chest physiotherapy, inhaled bronchodilators, proper hydration, and good nutrition. In rare circumstances, surgical resection or bilateral lung transplantation may be the only option available for improving quality of life. prognosis is generally good but varies with the underlying syndrome.
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ranking = 0.20098726829321
keywords = airway
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7/302. vocal cord dysfunction in a child.

    vocal cord dysfunction (VCD) involves paradoxical adduction of the vocal cord during the respiratory cycle. This usually occurs during inspiration, but can also be seen in expiration. Vocal cord appositioning produces airflow obstruction sufficient to cause wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and coughing. These symptoms often imitate the respiratory alterations of asthma, thus leading to inappropriate treatment; intubation or tracheotomy may prove necessary. An 11-year-old girl was admitted with intractable dyspnea. She had been diagnosed with atopic asthma, although she failed to respond to an increase in antiasthma medication, including high-dose oral steroids. Flow-volume loops were abnormal, with evidence of variable extrathoracic airway obstruction, manifested as a flat inspiratory loop. No structural abnormalities were seen with either computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Fibroscopy revealed paradoxical adduction of the vocal cords during the respiratory cycle, no obstructive disorder being observed. After the diagnosis of VCD, the clinical manifestations resolved with psychiatric treatment. Adduction was not demonstrable at repeat fibroscopy after treatment. VCD may simulate bronchial asthma; it may also be associated with that disorder, thus masking the diagnosis. It should be suspected in patients with recurrent wheezing who fail to respond to usual asthma treatment. An early diagnosis avoids unnecessary aggressive management. Treatment should consist of respiratory and phonatory exercises; psychotherapy may be useful.
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ranking = 1.0224931837235
keywords = airway obstruction, airway, obstruction
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8/302. Occupational asthma in a grain worker due to Lepidoglyphus destructor, assessed by bronchial provocation test and induced sputum.

    BACKGROUND: Occupational asthma (OA) can be a debilitating disease even when removal from the workplace is achieved. Today, the "gold standard" in the assessment of OA is the bronchial provocation test (BPT). Induced sputum is a non-invasive method of exploring airway inflammation which can provide additional information about such challenges and thus could be applied in OA diagnosis and monitoring. methods: We report the study carried out in a grain worker sensitized to Lepidoglyphus destructor (Ld), who suffered from mild asthma at the workplace. skin prick test and specific serum IgE were measured. Ld-BPT was performed, and the changes in eosinophil rates, and ECP and tryptase levels in induced sputum were studied 30 min and 18 h after Ld-BPT. We also determined the changes in nonspecific bronchial hyperresponsiveness (NSBH), given as PD20 values. To assess the specificity of the changes, we also carried out sputum induction and methacholine challenge after barley-BPT. RESULTS: An isolated immediate response was obtained with Ld-BPT, while barley-BPT was negative. Induced sputum showed higher tryptase levels 30 min after Ld-BPT, and higher eosinophil and epithelial cell percentages and ECP levels 18 h after Ld-BPT. There was also a decrease in methacholine PD20 values after Ld-BPT. Those changes were not observed after barley-BPT. CONCLUSIONS: The study of eosinophilic and mast-cell markers in induced sputum provides additional knowledge about the inflammatory process occurring in the airways, suggesting that the study of induced sputum should be considered in the assessment of OA.
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ranking = 0.40197453658642
keywords = airway
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9/302. Left bronchial isomerism, normal atrial arrangement and bronchomalacia mimicking asthma: a new syndrome?

    Three children who presented with steroid-resistant airflow obstruction are described. They all had bronchomalacia in the setting of a rare visceral arrangement, namely left bronchial isomerism with normal atrial arrangement. Imaging and, in two cases, a normal residual volume in the face of severe airflow obstruction were diagnostic pointers to a nonasthmatic cause of wheeze. Although the association of these abnormalities may be coincidental, together they may constitute a new clinical syndrome.
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ranking = 0.044986367447085
keywords = obstruction
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10/302. Tracheal neurilemmoma mimicking bronchial asthma--a dilemma of difficult diagnosis: case report.

    Tracheal tumors are often overlooked as a cause of pulmonary symptoms until they reach an advanced state. They are often presented with a prolonged cough and shortness of breath. Most tracheal tumors in adults are cancerous (80% to 90%). Benign tracheal tumors are rare in adult patients. A case history is presented of a 19-year-old patient with a rare tracheal neurilemmoma. He was treated as having bronchial asthma initially, but his signs and symptoms did not improve with traditional therapy. The possibility of the presence of an upper airway obstruction was not raised until the typical "inspiratory tubular sound" was heard. Flow-volume loop testing, bronchoscopy, and three-dimensional computed tomography (3-D CT) confirmed the diagnosis of upper airway obstruction caused by a tracheal tumor. Therefore, surgical intervention rather than bronchoscopic removal was performed without difficulty. The patient was leading a stable life 8 months after a surgical resection. The presence of an upper airway obstruction can be proven by flow-volume loop testing and 3-D CT. Further pathologic confirmation can be accomplished by bronchoscopy. High suspicion of an upper airway obstruction such as a tracheal lesion should be raised when bronchial asthma patients fail to respond to conventional treatment.
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ranking = 4
keywords = airway obstruction, airway, obstruction
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