Cases reported "Asthma"

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1/1486. Baker's asthma due to the enzyme xylanase -- a new occupational allergen.

    The asthmatic baker showed IgE-mediated sensitization to xylanase of aspergillus niger used as a baking additive. Inhalative challenge with approximately 0.5 microg of the enzyme resulted in an immediate-type asthmatic reaction. This case, as well as a preliminary screening of symptomatic bakers, shows that xylanase is a further relevant type I-sensitizer in the baking industry.
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2/1486. Cockroach allergy and asthma in a 30-year-old man.

    A growing body of evidence has implicated allergens derived from cockroaches as an important environmental factor that may aggravate asthma in sensitized persons. We present the case of a 30-year-old man with asthma and a cockroach allergy. Allergy skin testing confirmed hypersensitivity to cockroach extract, and a home visit revealed visual evidence of infestation and the presence of Bla g 1 German cockroach allergen in vacuumed dust. As is typical of patients with a cockroach allergy and asthma, multiple factors in addition to cockroach allergen appeared to aggravate the patient's asthma. A multimodality therapeutic regimen, which included medications as well as cleaning of the home, integrated pest management, and professional application of chemical controls, resulted in substantial clinical improvement. The pathophysiology, epidemiology, and clinical features of cockroach-allergic asthma are reviewed, and an approach to diagnosis and management is suggested.
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3/1486. Occupational asthma and IgE sensitization to cellulase in a textile industry worker.

    BACKGROUND: Although there have been a few reports of occupational asthma due to cellulase in several occupational settings, this is the first case of cellulase-induced occupational asthma in an employee working in the textile industry. Its pathogenetic mechanism remains to be further clarified. OBJECTIVE: It is important to alert physicians to the possibility of occupational asthma caused by cellulase in workers of the textile industry. methods AND RESULTS: The patient had atopy and strong positive responses to cellulase extract on skin prick tests. Bronchoprovocation test showed an early asthmatic response to cellulase extract. serum specific IgE and specific IgG4 antibodies to cellulase were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In order to further characterize the allergenic component of the extract, sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and electroblotting studies were performed. Eight IgE binding components ranging from 6 to 97.5 kD were detected within the cellulase extract. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that inhalation of cellulase can induce IgE-mediated bronchoconstrictions in employees working in the textile industry.
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4/1486. New occupational allergen in citrus farmers: citrus red mite (Panonychus citri).

    BACKGROUND: There have been several reports of occupational allergy to spider mites (tetranychidae), but no published report has described citrus red mite (CRM, Panonychus citri)-induced occupational asthma confirmed by specific bronchial challenge. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinical and immunologic characteristics of CRM-induced occupational asthma. methods AND RESULTS: We encountered 16 cases of CRM-induced occupational asthma among farmers cultivating citrus fruits. Asthmatic attacks corresponded closely with their work on citrus farms. The mean duration of the latent period was 12.9 (range 7 to 20) years. During their first visit to our clinic, nine patients with FEV1 lower than 70% of predictive value showed reversible airway obstruction after inhalation of bronchodilator, and seven with FEV1 greater than 70% of predictive value showed airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. Fifteen of the 16 also complained of recurrent nasal symptoms, which had developed at an earlier time than the asthmatic symptoms. They showed strong positive reactions to CRM extract on skin prick test (A/H ratio > or = 1.0) and had high serum specific IgE antibody against CRM which was detected by ELISA. skin prick test with common inhalant allergens revealed that 10 had an isolated positive response to CRM with negative results to common inhalant allergens in their environment. The ELISA inhibition tests with CRM demonstrated significant inhibitions by CRM in a dose-dependent manner, while minimal inhibitions were noted by D. pteronyssinus and mugwort allergens. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that CRM could induce IgE-mediated bronchoconstriction in exposed workers on citrus farm.
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5/1486. Facial dermatitis, contact urticaria, rhinoconjunctivitis, and asthma induced by potato.

    BACKGROUND: Potato contains multiple heat-labile proteins which can induce immediate hypersensitivity reactions. Rhino-conjunctivitis, asthma, contact urticaria and protein contact dermatitis have been described in association with potato exposure. OBJECTIVE: A patient with possible airborne facial dermatitis to potato is described. RESULTS: A middle-aged atopic housewife with pre-existent atopic dermatitis suffered from rhino-conjunctivitis, asthma, and contact urticaria when pealing raw potatoes, but her main complaint was intense, treatment-resistant dermatitis of the face. The investigations showed a positive prick test, a positive patch test, and positive specific serum IgE to raw potato. Potato avoidance led not only to the resolution of the immediate symptoms, but also of the facial dermatitis, suggesting she had dermatitis due to this vegetable. CONCLUSIONS: Potato may induce contact dermatitis with positive immediate and delayed hypersensitivity tests.
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6/1486. Nonconvulsive status epilepticus in theophylline toxicity.

    CASE REPORT: A 53-year-old cocaine user was on chronic therapy with theophylline, albuterol, and ipratropium for asthma and nifedipine for hypertension. Acute asthma treatment that increased the serum theophylline to 35 micrograms/mL was associated with tonic clonic seizures followed by bizarre, lateralized posturing. Electroencephalogram seizure activity lasting 10 days was consistent with nonconvulsive status epilepticus, Complex Partial, type II. theophylline was considered the probable instigator of this underdiagnosed neurologic disorder.
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7/1486. Pseudo-steroid resistant asthma.

    BACKGROUND: Steroid resistant asthma (SRA) represents a small subgroup of those patients who have asthma and who are difficult to manage. Two patients with apparent SRA are described, and 12 additional cases who were admitted to the same hospital are reviewed. methods: The subjects were selected from a tertiary hospital setting by review of all asthma patients admitted over a two year period. Subjects were defined as those who failed to respond to high doses of bronchodilators and oral glucocorticosteroids, as judged by subjective assessment, audible wheeze on examination, and serial peak flow measurements. RESULTS: In 11 of the 14 patients identified there was little to substantiate the diagnosis of severe or steroid resistant asthma apart from symptoms and upper respiratory wheeze. Useful tests to differentiate this group of patients from those with severe asthma appear to be: the inability to perform reproducible forced expiratory manoeuvres, normal airway resistance, and a concentration of histamine causing a 20% fall in the forced expiratory volume (FEV1) being within the range for normal subjects (PC20). Of the 14 subjects, four were health care staff and two reported childhood sexual abuse. CONCLUSION: Such patients are important to identify as they require supportive treatment which should not consist of high doses of glucocorticosteroids and beta2 adrenergic agonists. Diagnoses other than asthma, such as gastro-oesophageal reflux, hyperventilation, vocal cord dysfunction and sleep apnoea, should be sought as these may be a cause of glucocorticosteroid treatment failure and pseudo-SRA, and may respond to alternative treatment.
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8/1486. The role of the retrieval team in severe asthma.

    Retrieval teams, consisting of staff trained in the transfer of critically ill, patients, step into the breach when local hospitals lack the facilities or expertise needed. Tracy Taylor uses a case study to illustrate their effectiveness.
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9/1486. Disodium cromoglycate and food allergy. The effect of oral and inhaled disodium cromoglycate in a food allergic patient.

    In a food allergic patient challenge evoked a dual asthmatic response. These reactions could be partly or completely blocked by pretreatment with disodium cromoglycate (Intal, Lomudal) orally, depending on the doses given. Pretreatment with inhalations of disodium cromoglycate gave no protection.
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keywords = asthma
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10/1486. Successful extracorporeal lung assist (ECLA) for a patient with severe asthma and cardiac arrest.

    A 20-year-old male had a severe asthma attack complicated by a cardiac arrest despite maximal conventional therapy including mechanical ventilation. He was treated successfully with emergency veno-arterial Extra-corporeal lung Assist started after 30 minutes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. We believe that ECLA is a life-saving measure for intractable asthma and cardiac arrest.
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