Cases reported "Asthma"

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1/89. Pseudo-steroid resistant asthma.

    BACKGROUND: Steroid resistant asthma (SRA) represents a small subgroup of those patients who have asthma and who are difficult to manage. Two patients with apparent SRA are described, and 12 additional cases who were admitted to the same hospital are reviewed. methods: The subjects were selected from a tertiary hospital setting by review of all asthma patients admitted over a two year period. Subjects were defined as those who failed to respond to high doses of bronchodilators and oral glucocorticosteroids, as judged by subjective assessment, audible wheeze on examination, and serial peak flow measurements. RESULTS: In 11 of the 14 patients identified there was little to substantiate the diagnosis of severe or steroid resistant asthma apart from symptoms and upper respiratory wheeze. Useful tests to differentiate this group of patients from those with severe asthma appear to be: the inability to perform reproducible forced expiratory manoeuvres, normal airway resistance, and a concentration of histamine causing a 20% fall in the forced expiratory volume (FEV1) being within the range for normal subjects (PC20). Of the 14 subjects, four were health care staff and two reported childhood sexual abuse. CONCLUSION: Such patients are important to identify as they require supportive treatment which should not consist of high doses of glucocorticosteroids and beta2 adrenergic agonists. Diagnoses other than asthma, such as gastro-oesophageal reflux, hyperventilation, vocal cord dysfunction and sleep apnoea, should be sought as these may be a cause of glucocorticosteroid treatment failure and pseudo-SRA, and may respond to alternative treatment.
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2/89. Severe steroid-dependent asthma with IgG-2 deficiency and recurrent sinusitis: response to treatment with high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin.

    patients with severe asthma pose a dilemma to the physician since the treatment they need, namely high doses of oral steroids, has serious side effects, especially among the pediatric population. Deficiency in one or more of the IgG subclasses has been associated with abnormal pulmonary function, as well as with recurrent sinopulmonary infections in adults and children. In the last years attention has been focused on alternative therapies for these patients. One of these alternatives is the treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). We report an 11-year-old boy with severe asthma since the age of two years and multiple hospital admissions due to asthmatic crisis even more frequent and severe, to the point of needing, in the last year, daily treatment with high doses of oral steroids (20 mg). During six months the patient was given high doses of intravenous immunoglobulin. After one month of treatment a clinical and spirometric improvement was apparent allowing to taper down the oral steroids until their complete substitution by inhaled budesonide (1,600 microg/day). The only side effects noted were severe headaches after gammaglobulin infusions which responded well to oral paracetamol. This improvement was sustained throughout the treatment period, but few weeks after the IVIG was suspended the clinical and spirometric parameters started to worsen again.
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keywords = headache
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3/89. Lethal or life-threatening allergic reactions to food.

    Fatal or life-threatening anaphylactic reactions to food occur in infants, children and adults. Atopic individuals with bronchial asthma and prior allergic reactions to the same food are at a particularly high risk, whereby even the mere inhalation of the allergenic food can be fatal. Not only peanuts, seafood and milk can induce severe, potentially lethal anaphylaxis, but indeed a wide spectrum of foods, according to the different patterns of food sensitivity in different countries. Foods with "hidden" allergens and meals at restaurants are particularly dangerous for patients with food allergies. Similarly, schools, public places and restaurants are the major places of risk. However, the main factor contributing to a fatal outcome is the fact that the victims did not carry their emergency kit with adrenaline (epinephrine) with them. In cases of death where food anaphylaxis is suspected, it is important for forensic reasons to preserve uneaten portions of the food in order to identify (hidden) allergens. It is also important to determine postmortem specific serum IgE, tryptase and histamine levels to document the anaphylaxis. There is a need to raise awareness of the diagnosis and treatment of anaphylaxis among doctors, those called upon to administer emergency medical care, and the public, and also to provide increased support for those with potentially fatal food allergies through the help of patients' organizations, and national and international medical societies. The food industry should ensure a policy of comprehensive labelling of ingredients so that even the smallest amount of potentially lethal foodstuffs can be clearly identified. Finally, the pharmaceutical industry should be persuaded to reintroduce an adrenaline inhaler onto the market.
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4/89. Occupational asthma caused by bacillary amylase used in the detergent industry.

    Four cases are reported of occupational asthma due to amylase derived from bacillus licheniformis, used in detergent washing powders. It is thought that these are the first reported cases of asthma due to this enzyme in the detergent industry. All four employees (men) were from the same factory and none had a history of asthma or atopy. All developed symptoms of wheeze at work after an initial symptom free period. Symptoms improved during periods away from work. All undertook serial peak flow recordings (not diagnostic) and underwent skin prick tests, radio allergosorbent test (RAST) measurement, and specific bronchial provocation testing. The bronchial provocation testing was performed by a dust tipping method in a single blind manner, with lactose as an inert control and powdered amylase, provided by the employer, as an active agent. Serial measurements of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)) were recorded and histamine provocative concentration causing a 20% fall in FEV(1) (PC(20)) tests were determined before and 24 hours after each challenge. Patient 1 developed an isolated early reaction, patient 2 an isolated late reaction, and patients 3 and 4 developed dual reactions. All showed an increased non-specific bronchial responsiveness after active challenge. The introduction of encapsulated enzymes in the detergent industry was followed by a reduction in the incidence of respiratory sensitisation. These patients developed occupational asthma despite working only with encapsulated enzymes. This highlights the importance of careful surveillance after the introduction of new agents in the workplace.
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5/89. hypnosis as a diagnostic modality for vocal cord dysfunction.

    vocal cord dysfunction (VCD) is a condition of paradoxical adduction of the vocal cords during the inspiratory phase of the respiratory cycle. VCD often presents as stridorous breathing, which may be misdiagnosed as asthma. The mismanagement of this disorder may result in unnecessary treatment and iatrogenic morbidity. An association with psychogenic factors has been reported, and a higher incidence of anxiety-related illness has been demonstrated in patients with VCD. Definitive diagnosis of VCD is made by visualization of adducted cords during an acute episode using nasopharyngeal fiber-optic laryngoscopy. diagnosis can be problematic, because it may be difficult to reproduce an attack in a controlled setting. To maximize diagnostic yield during laryngoscopy, provocation of symptoms using methacholine, histamine, or exercise challenges have been used. We report a case of an 11-year-old boy, wherein hypnotic suggestion was used as an alternative method to achieve a diagnosis of VCD. The patient was admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit for elective fiber-optic laryngoscopy to confirm a diagnosis of VCD. The patient had a 4-year history of refractory asthma, severe gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) for which he had undergone a Nissen fundoplication, and suspected VCD. At 9 years of age the patient began manifesting monthly respiratory distress episodes of a severe character different from those that had been attributed to his asthma. Typically, he awoke from sleep with shortness of breath and difficulty with inhalation. He described a "neck attack" during which he felt as if the walls of his throat were "beating together." The patient was at times noted by his mother to exhibit a "suckling" behavior before onset of his respiratory distress episodes. On 4 occasions the patient became unconscious during an attack and then spontaneously regained consciousness after a few minutes. On these occasions, he was transported by ambulance to the hospital and the severe difficulty with inhalation resolved within a few minutes on treatment with oxygen and bronchodilators. Sometimes he was noted to manifest wheezing for several hours, which was responsive to bronchodilator therapy. Given the severity of the patient's disease, it was imperative to determine whether VCD was a complicating factor. It was proposed that an attempt be made to induce VCD by hypnotic suggestion while the patient underwent a fiberscopic laryngoscopy to establish a definitive diagnosis. The patient and his mother gave written consent for this procedure. He was admitted for observation to the pediatric intensive care unit for the induction attempt. The patient requested that no local anesthesia be applied in his nose before passage of the laryngoscope because he wanted to eat right after the procedure. Therefore, the nasopharyngeal laryngoscope was inserted while he used self-hypnosis as the sole form of anesthesia. He demonstrated no discomfort during its passing. Once the vocal cords were visualized, the patient was instructed to develop an episode of respiratory distress while in a state of hypnosis by recalling a recent "neck attack." His vocal cords then were observed to adduct anteriorly with each inspiration. The patient then was asked to relax his neck. When he did, the vocal cords immediately abducted with inspiration, and he breathed easily. After removal of the laryngoscope, the patient alerted from hypnosis and said he felt well. He reported no recollection of the procedure, thus demonstrating spontaneous amnesia that sometimes is associated with hypnosis. Because the diagnosis of VCD was confirmed, the patient was encouraged to use self-hypnosis and speech therapy techniques to control his symptoms. He also was referred for counseling. To our knowledge this is the first description in the medical literature of the use of hypnotic suggestion for making a diagnosis of VCD. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED)
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6/89. Subcutaneous nodules following treatment with aluminium-containing allergen extracts.

    We describe two patients who developed multiple itching nodules following immunization with vaccines adsorbed on aluminium hydroxide. Both patients had been treated with vaccines for extrinsic asthma and rhinitis for 4 and 10 years respectively. The lesions were persistent and lasted for several years. Histopathological findings were those of a foreign body reaction. Aluminium was most probably involved in the pathogenesis of these lesions because its presence could be demonstrated in macrophages using energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis. Although some symptomatic relief was achieved with topical corticosteroids and oral antihistamines, treatment was unsuccessful.
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7/89. Occupational asthma and rhinitis caused by multiple herbal agents in a pharmacist.

    BACKGROUND: Herb agents have been widely used for centuries in the Orient and they have been cultivated throughout asia. There have been a few cases of occupational allergy caused by herb materials. We report a case of occupational asthma and rhinitis caused by six herb materials in a pharmacist working at a pharmacy. OBJECTIVE: We sought the role of immediate hypersensitivity in herbal agent-induced asthma in a pharmacist. methods AND RESULTS: The patient had strong positive responses on skin prick test to extracts of six herb materials: Chunkung (Cnidii rhizoma), Banha (pinellia ternata), Sanyak (dioscorea radix), Kangwhal (Ostericum koreanum), Danggui (angelica radix), and Kunkang (Zingiberis rhizoma). Bronchoprovocation tests showed an early asthmatic response to Danggui extract. serum specific IgE antibodies to Chunkung, Banha, and Sanyak were detected by ELISA with no specific IgE bindings to Kangwhal, Danggui, and Kunkang extracts. Twelve percent sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and IgE immunoblotting revealed one IgE binding component (60 kD) within Chunkung extract, two (10, 25 kD) in Banha, and four (33, 34, 65, 98 kD) in Sanyak. Basophil histamine release test revealed that Danggui extract could release a greater amount of histamine from basophils in the patient than in a healthy control. CONCLUSIONS: Chunkung, Banha, and Sanyak may induce IgE-mediated bronchoconstriction in an exposed worker, and Danggui can cause bronchoconstriction by direct histamine-releasing effect from mast cells in a sensitized patient.
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8/89. Report of occupational asthma due to phytase and beta-glucanase.

    OBJECTIVES: Occupational asthma is the principal cause of respiratory disease in the workplace. The enzymes phytase and beta-glucanase are used in the agricultural industry to optimise the nutritional value of animal feeds. A relation between these enzymes and occupational asthma in a 43 year old man was suspected. methods: inhalation challenge tests were performed with the enzymes phytase, beta-glucanase, and amylase. Skin prick tests were performed with the enzymes diluted to a concentration of 1 mg/ml and 5 mg/ml. Specific IgE to phytase and beta-glucanase were measured with a radioallergosorbent test. RESULTS: Baseline spirometry values were normal. A histamine challenge test showed bronchial hyperreactivity. Exposure to phytase and beta-glucanase led to significant reductions in forced vital capacity and forced expired volume in 1 second. No significant differences were noted after exposure to amylase. skin tests showed a positive reaction to beta-glucanase (5 mm) at a concentration of 1 mg/ml and positive reactions to beta-glucanase (7 mm) and phytase (5 mm) at a concentration of 5 mg/ml. Similarly specific IgE was present against both phytase and beta-glucanase, at 2.5% and 9.3% binding respectively (2% binding is considered positive). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first description of occupational asthma due to the enzymes phytase and beta-glucanase. Their addition to the ever increasing list of substances associated with occupational asthma will have notable implications for those exposed to these enzymes.
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9/89. intraocular pressure elevation in a child due to the use of inhalation steroids--a case report.

    inhalation steroid therapy can cause ocular hypertension or open angle glaucoma. The authors describe the case of a young girl who presented with raised intraocular pressure and headaches due to the prolonged administration of nasal and inhalation steroids. The ophthalmologist should monitor the intraocular pressure in patients who use inhalation or nasal steroid therapy on a regular base. The physician or paediatrician should be aware of this complication in children with headaches or diminished visual acuity.
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ranking = 0.000438378055135
keywords = headache
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10/89. Buckwheat pillow-induced asthma and allergic rhinitis.

    BACKGROUND: Immunoglobulin (Ig)E-mediated hypersensitivity is a mechanism suggested to explain adverse reactions to buckwheat. This is the first reported case in the united states of a person who developed asthma and worsening allergic rhinitis after exposure to a buckwheat pillow. OBJECTIVE: To describe a patient who developed asthma and worsening allergic rhinitis after exposure to a buckwheat pillow and to provide evidence that the adverse reaction was IgE-mediated. methods: The patient underwent skin prick and ImmunoCAP testing (Pharmacia Diagnostics, Kalamazoo, MI) to buckwheat as well as skin prick testing to several environmental allergens. RESULTS: The patient showed a 4 skin prick test response to buckwheat. He also showed 4 positive skin prick responses to multiple trees, grasses, and weeds, alternaria, helminthosporium, dog, and histamine control and was 3 positive to house-dust mites, penicillium, aspergillus, cat, and feather mix. His negative control was negative. His ImmunoCAP test for buckwheat-specific IgE was class 4, or strongly positive. He had normal spirometry values. Performance of house-dust mite avoidance measures did not result in improvement of the patient's symptoms. Removal of the patient's two buckwheat pillows resulted in resolution of his asthma and improvement of rhinitis symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The positive skin prick and ImmunoCAP test to buckwheat along with the positive clinical response to buckwheat pillow elimination support an IgE-mediated mechanism in explaining our patient's buckwheat pillow-induced asthma and allergic rhinitis.
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