Cases reported "Asthma"

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1/7. Response of asthma-related voice dysfunction to allergen immunotherapy: a case report of confirmation by methacholine challenge.

    Professional singers and other serious voice users are particularly susceptible to alterations in their vocal apparatus. As the support for vocalization, lung function is an essential element of the production of speech and song. patients have been described who presented with voice complaints along with minimal or no abnormalities on spirometry, but responded to conventional bronchodilator and other asthma therapy. It was proposed that this represented an exercise-induced asthmalike condition, brought on by the hyperventilation associated with performing. The objective of this study was to establish whether improvement in vocalization while performing correlated with a decrease in non-specific bronchial reactivity. We concluded that resolution of vocal complaints in conjunction with a decrease in methacholine reactivity supports the hypothesis that these patients do have an exercise-induced asthmalike condition brought on by airway drying. As with other patients with asthma, it appears to respond to allergy-directed therapy.
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2/7. vocal cord dysfunction mimics asthma and may respond to heliox.

    vocal cord dysfunction (VCD), an under appreciated cause of wheezing, may be mistaken for or coexist with asthma. The vocal cords involuntarily adduct during inspiration, leading to inspiratory or biphasic wheezing. Asthma therapy offers no benefit and may result in injury. Proof of diagnosis requires endoscopy during an episode. Definitive therapy involves voice training by a speech pathologist, but heliox (20% to 40% oxygen in helium) has been used to reduce symptoms, resulting in dramatic improvement in wheezing and less anxiety. A retrospective review of recent experience with heliox treatment for patients with VCD was conducted, using a search of computerized inpatient and outpatient physician dictation reporting at Scott & White Memorial Hospital and Clinic. Five patients age 10 to 15 years were treated with a favorable response in four. There were no complications of therapy. A high index of suspicion can lead to the diagnosis of VCD, avoiding expensive, inappropriate, and harmful therapy. A trial of heliox inhalation for patients with symptomatic VCD may prove beneficial, analogous to the "reliever" role of beta agonists for asthma. Home or school use of heliox may reduce acute care visits, while voice training ("controller" therapy) is instituted.
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3/7. Intratracheal thyroid.

    Ectopic thyroid tissue within the trachea (intratracheal or endotracheal tissue) is a rare cause of upper airway obstruction. The symptoms may be classical or, as in most cases in which the voice is not affected, the first sign may be a wheeze. This may result in the symptoms being mistaken for asthma. The presence of a submucosal upper tracheal mass is quite unusual. If one is familiar with the fact that thyroid tissue may occur in this location, then this diagnosis should be considered in patients with such symptoms, and the appropriate diagnostic studies and surgical management should be instituted. The present case report entailed a 56-year-old female who was admitted to the hospital after having been treated for a year in an outlying area. She had increasing shortness of breath and wheezing and had been treated several times for asthma. Indirect laryngoscopy revealed an upper tracheal submucosal mass which was confirmed by direct laryngoscopy and by tomography. Biopsies were taken confirming nodular ectopic thyroid tissue. The patient was operated on through a cervical incision and a tracheal flap was elevated in order to carry out a submucosal dissection of this mass. The patient has done well for more than a year following surgery, and histologically this lesion was benign in the thyroid tissue.
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4/7. Multidimensional voice program analysis (MDVP) and the diagnosis of pediatric vocal cord dysfunction.

    BACKGROUND: vocal cord dysfunction (VCD) can present with signs and symptoms that mimic asthma. This may lead to unnecessary pharmacologic treatment or more invasive measures including intubation. Presently, the diagnosis of VCD can only be confirmed when a patient is symptomatic, via pulmonary function testing (PFT) or visualization of adduction of the vocal cords during inspiration by direct laryngoscopy. OBJECTIVE: Multidimensional Voice Program (MDVP) analysis. a computer program which analyzes various aspects of voice, can detect abnormal voice patterns of patients with upper airway pathology. We determined whether MDVP analysis was useful in the diagnosis of VCD. methods: We conducted chart reviews of patients referred to our department from 1995 to 1998 with the presumed diagnosis of VCD who had undergone MDVP analysis. The diagnosis of VCD was based on the presenting history, PFT results, laryngoscopy results, as well as voice evaluation conducted by a speech-language pathologist. We analyzed six consecutive patients referred for this investigation. We delineated common trends in the variables measured on MDVP analysis in VCD patients. and compared these with controls and other vocal cord pathology. RESULTS: Five cases of possible VCD had abnormalities in the MDVP variable of soft phonation index (SPI). All five also had abnormalities in the variation in fundamental frequency (vFo). In one case, MDVP analysis was conducted pre- and posttreatment for VCD, and SPI and vFo both normalized. In a sixth case of possible VCD. the diagnosis was not confirmed as the patient had normal PFTs and laryngoscopy. MDVP analysis was normal in this individual. The pattern of abnormal SPI and vFo was not seen in a group of normal controls or in patients with vocal cord nodules. CONCLUSIONS: MDVP analysis may be a useful tool when diagnosingVCD, as well as in evaluating response to treatment.
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5/7. dyspnea, wheezing, and airways obstruction: is it asthma?

    dyspnea, wheezing, and decreased FEV1 with bronchodilator response are characteristic of asthma. However, when standard asthma therapy fails, a broad differential must be considered to avoid a catastrophic outcome. This article presents a case report of a 48-year-old Filipino woman, who was referred for evaluation of cough, dyspnea and wheezy respiration, changes in voice quality, nasal and palatal pruritus, and postnasal drainage. She was found to have mold spore hypersensitivity and abnormal spirometry with an obstructive pattern and a 15% reversibility postnebulized albuterol. An initial diagnosis of allergic rhinitis and adult-onset asthma was made, and therapy was initiated which included: salmeterol, budesonide, montelukast, and pirbuterol. Her symptoms persisted and rabeprazole was added to treat possible laryngopharyngeal reflux. Repeat spirometry demonstrated worsening obstruction. There was no improvement with systemic corticosteroids. High-resolution computed tomography of the chest demonstrated a left paratracheal mass, obstructing 60% of the airway. bronchoscopy revealed a tumor 4-5 cm below the vocal cords with the appearance of adenoid cystic carcinoma, which was confirmed by pathology. All symptoms resolved and spirometry normalized with resection of mass and radiation therapy. Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is an uncommon form of malignant neoplasm that arises from salivary glands. Tracheobronchial ACC typically presents with symptoms of cough, dyspnea, and hoarseness. ACC has a relatively indolent course. Standard therapy is surgical resection often followed by radiotherapy. In patients who fail conventional therapies for asthma, it is important to consider other diagnoses to avoid fatal outcomes.
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6/7. Juvenile laryngeal papillomatosis.

    Always ask about hoarseness and quality of voice in a history of any child presenting with cough or asthma-like symptoms. Children presenting with what appears to be an acute onset of hoarseness, without any physical signs of airways obstruction, should be reviewed after two weeks. If there is chronic hoarseness, referral to an ENT specialist should be considered with a view to laryngoscopy. If the child develops clinical signs of acute airway obstruction such as stridor or respiratory distress, prompt paediatric review is indicated. When referring, it is important to emphasise whether or not there is chronic hoarseness in order to differentiate the diagnosis from croup. Juvenile Laryngeal Papillomatosis may present with cough, pneumonia, dysphagia, or stridor, as well as hoarseness. These patients are often misdiagnosed as having asthma or allergies.
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7/7. status asthmaticus. Management of status asthmaticus complicated by surgical emphysema--avoidance of intermittent positive pressure ventilation.

    The management of a case of status asthmaticus complicated by surgical emphysema is described. In view of voice changes, intubation was necessary but intermittent positive pressure ventilation was considered unwise, because of the surgical emphysema. A means of maintaining adequate sedation in an intubated patient whilst allowing spontaneous respiration is outlined.
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