Cases reported "Astrocytoma"

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1/341. Cervicomedullary astrocytoma simulating a neuromuscular disorder.

    A 12-year-old male developed progressive proximal upper extremity weakness over a 3- to 4-year period. The clinical findings of proximal upper extremity weakness and atrophy, prominent scapular winging, and no sensory deficits or upper motor neuron signs suggested a neuromuscular disorder. electromyography was consistent with a chronic denervating disorder involving the upper cervical anterior horn cells or their axons. A cervical magnetic resonance image revealed a large intramedullary mass extending from the inferior aspect of the fourth ventricle down to the level of T2. A biopsy of the lesion was consistent with a low-grade astrocytoma.
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2/341. Secondary glioblastoma remarkably reduced by steroid administration after anaplastic transformation from gliomatosis cerebri--case report.

    A 45-year-old female presented with gliomatosis cerebri manifesting as hemiballismus-like involuntary movement in the arm, motor weakness in the leg, and hypesthesia in her left side. Computed tomography showed only diffuse swelling of the right cerebral hemisphere, but T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging revealed a diffuse lesion spreading from the right thalamus to the temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes on the same side. No abnormal enhancement was recognized. cerebral angiography showed no specific finding. A right occipital lobectomy was performed to confirm the diagnosis of gliomatosis cerebri. Anaplastic transformation was recognized 5 months later. The disease did not resolve with radiation or interferon administration, but steroid therapy achieved remarkably effective tumor regression. The patient died due to pneumonia. autopsy showed the features of diffuse glioblastoma. Steroid therapy may be an effective treatment for gliomatosis cerebri before the terminal stage.
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ranking = 0.6955659512551
keywords = cerebral
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3/341. Multiple postoperative intracerebral haematomas remote from the site of craniotomy.

    A postoperative haemorrhage is a common and serious complication of a neurosurgical procedure. It usually occurs at the site of the surgery, but on occasion a postoperative haematoma is found at a distance from the previous craniotomy. Multiple postoperative haemorrhages are extremely rare. We report the case of a 63-year-old woman, operated on for the removal of a supratentorial astrocytoma, who developed in the early post-operative period multiple bilateral intracerebral haematomas without involvement of the surgical bed.
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ranking = 3.4778297562755
keywords = cerebral
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4/341. Atypical pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma.

    A 65-year-old man experienced an ictal episode. CT revealed a left capsulo-thalamic mass, and SPET showed hypoperfusion of the left cerebral emisphere. The lesion was subtotally removed, and postoperative radiotherapy was given. Pathological examination demonstrated an "atypical" pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma. The patient died of massive regrowth of the tumor 22 months after surgery. This case is discussed in light of the pertinent literature.
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keywords = cerebral
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5/341. Symptomatic vasospasm after resection of a suprasellar pilocytic astrocytoma: case report and possible pathogenesis.

    BACKGROUND: Cerebral vasospasm from pathology other than subarachnoid hemorrhage is uncommon. A case of severe vasospasm after resection of a suprasellar pilocytic astrocytoma is reported. methods: A 45-year-old male presented with headache, left facial numbness, bilateral visual loss, and ataxia. Evaluation revealed a large suprasellar tumor, which was resected. Pathologic examination showed pilocytic astrocytoma. The patient developed hemiparesis and aphasia on the fifth postoperative day. Vascular spasm was documented on angiography and by transcranial Doppler. RESULTS: Intraarterial papaverine resulted in moderate angiographic improvement. Attempts to open middle cerebral artery branches with angioplasty were unsuccessful. The patient subsequently developed a left middle cerebral artery infarct. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first description of vasospasm after resection of an astrocytoma. Possible mechanisms contributing to this unusual complication after resection of tumors are discussed.
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ranking = 1.3911319025102
keywords = cerebral
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6/341. Hemichorea and hemiballism associated with contralateral hemiparesis and ipsilateral basal ganglia lesions.

    We report on two patients with unilateral hyperkinetic movement disorders associated with contralateral hemiparesis and ipsilateral basal ganglia lesions. The first patient, a 47-year-old woman, had a low-grade astrocytoma located in the right basal ganglia extending into the subthalamic area and the cerebral peduncle. She presented with left hemiparesis, right hemichorea, and intermittent right-sided tremor at rest. The second patient, a 85-year-old woman, had hypertensive hemorrhage to the right posterior basal ganglia, the posterior limb of the internal capsule, the lateral thalamus, and the subthalamic region with accompanying intraventricular bleeding. She developed right-sided transient hemichorea-hemiballism. A videotape illustration of one of the patients is provided. The literature on the rare occurrence of ipsilateral hemichorea-hemiballism is discussed and possible pathomechanisms are reviewed. We postulate that hemiparesis contralateral to basal ganglia lesions might have a conditioning effect on the appearance of ipsilateral dyskinetic movement disorders.
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ranking = 0.6955659512551
keywords = cerebral
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7/341. Cerebrovascular changes in neurofibromatosis.

    Vascular changes in neurofibromatosis are most commonly described in the renal arteries. In the present study, two children with neurofibromatosis and cerebral vascular occlusive changes demonstrated by cerebral angiography are reported. Although focal neurological findings in children with neurofibromatosis are often due to tumours, the sudden development of neurological symptoms in such cases should alert paediatricians to the possibility of cerebral vascular disease.
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ranking = 2.0866978537653
keywords = cerebral
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8/341. Gliomatosis cerebri: cytologic and autopsy findings in a case involving the entire neuraxis.

    We describe the case of a 7-year-old girl who was clinically diagnosed as having a pontine glioma based on magnetic resonance imaging studies. Neoplastic cells were identified upon cytologic examination of cerebrospinal fluid. autopsy studies revealed an anaplastic astrocytoma (WHO grade III) diffusely infiltrating the cerebral hemispheres, brain stem, cerebellum, leptomeninges, and spinal cord to the level of the conus medullaris. The Ki-67 labeling index focally approached 30%. Although many of the neoplastic cells displayed elongated twisted nuclei reminiscent of microglia, these cells stained intensely for glial fibrillary acidic protein, supporting an astrocytic origin. Unusual features of this case of gliomatosis cerebri include involvement of the entire central neuraxis, correlation with pre-mortem lumbar puncture cytology, and a markedly elevated Ki-67 labeling index.
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ranking = 0.6955659512551
keywords = cerebral
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9/341. A case of Ollier's disease associated with two intracerebral low-grade gliomas.

    Ollier's disease, or multiple enchondromatosis, is a deforming dysplastic disease of cartilage, characterized by multiple, asymmetrically distributed intra-osseous cartilaginous masses in the metaphyses and diaphyses of bones. When associated with soft tissue hemangiomas it is referred to as Maffucci's syndrome, in which the enchondromatosis has no unilateral distribution. The emergence of malignant neoplasms, including gliomas, is a well-recognized complication in Maffucci's syndrome. We report a 28-year-old patient with a history of Ollier's disease, who developed two low-grade cerebral gliomas as well as an intracranial chondroma. This case history questions the distinction between the two forms of enchondromatosis and supports a continuum between these disease entities.
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ranking = 3.4778297562755
keywords = cerebral
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10/341. Intra-operative optical method using intrinsic signals for localization of sensorimotor area in patients with brain tumor.

    The purpose of this study is intra-operatively to localize the sensorimotor area by intrinsic optical method detecting the changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and cortical temperature following neuronal activity during median nerve stimulation. In 18 patients with brain tumors located around the sensorimotor cortex, cortical recording of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) was performed and localized changes in rCBF during median nerve stimulation were measured by a laser-Doppler flowmeter on the locations of SEPs and around the activation area obtained by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In two patients, cortical thermomapping was also performed during median nerve stimulation. In fMRI study, the significant activation area of sensorimotor could be obtained in 17 of 18 patients. In cortical recording of SEPs, the polarity reversal of N20 and P20 was observed in 14 of the 18 patients. In 9 of the 14 patients in whom SEPs could be recorded, the localized changes in rCBF, corresponding to the stimulation, were detected in the N20 area. In 2 of the 4 patients in whom N20 could not be recorded successfully, the localized changes in rCBF could be detected. The increase in rCBF during the stimulation was 18.3% /- 5.3% (mean /- SD, n = 11). Thermomapping could demonstrate the localized area, where the increase in rCBF was also detected, by observation of the changes in cortical temperature during the stimulation. The intra-operative intrinsic optical method detecting rCBF and cortical temperature in combination with recording of SEPs may be considered useful for brain functional localization related to neurosurgical disorders.
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ranking = 0.6955659512551
keywords = cerebral
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