Cases reported "Astrocytoma"

Filter by keywords:



Filtering documents. Please wait...

1/78. Mutations of the adenomatous polyposis coli and p53 genes in a child with Turcot's syndrome.

    Turcot's syndrome is a rare heritable complex that is characterized by an association between a primary neuroepithelial tumor of the central nervous system and multiple colonic polyps. The aim of this study was to analyze genetic alterations in a case of Turcot's syndrome in a 10.5-year-old boy in whom a colorectal tumor developed 3.5 years following astrocytoma. An APC germline non-sense mutation at codon 1284 leading to a truncated protein was identified, as was a somatic p53 mutation in the colorectal carcinoma in exon 7, codon 244. The latter was not identified in the primary astrocytoma. However, immunohistochemistry revealed high p53 protein expression in both tumors, suggesting an additional p53 mutation in the primary astrocytic tumor. The diverse p53 mutations observed in this unique syndrome in two different sites and stages of the disease may shed light on the multistep progression of the malignant events.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = nervous system
(Clic here for more details about this article)

2/78. Secondary supratentorial anaplastic astrocytoma following treatment of medulloblastoma.

    The development of secondary tumours is a rare but well known late effect of radiation therapy of lesions in the central nervous system. Most radiation-induced tumours are of mesenchymal origin, but on rare occasions gliomas can occur. We describe a patient in whom a supratentorial anaplastic astrocytoma developed 15 years after surgery and radiotherapy for a childhood posterior fossa medulloblastoma. A concise review of the pertinent literature is given.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = nervous system
(Clic here for more details about this article)

3/78. Coexistence of intracranial arteriovenous malformation with Turcot's syndrome: a case report.

    Turcot's syndrome is a combination of multiple adenomatous gastrointestinal polyps and neuroepithelial tumors of the central nervous system (CNS). A 16-year-old man presented with Turcot's syndrome consisting of nonfamilial colorectal polyposis and multiple fibrillary astrocytomas accompanied by ruptured intracranial arteriovenous malformation (AVM) manifesting as generalized epileptic activity. Multiple CNS tumors are extremely unusual in Turcot's syndrome. This is the first description of Turcot's syndrome associated with an intracranial AVM. This case may correspond to a new phenotypic variant of colonic polyposis syndrome.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = nervous system
(Clic here for more details about this article)

4/78. Localized pruritus: a presenting symptom of a spinal cord tumor in a child with features of neurofibromatosis.

    central nervous system (CNS) and spinal cord tumors are not uncommon in patients with neurofibromatosis (NF); however, it is impossible to select patients with NF who are at a particularly high risk. Localized pruritus may be a clue to the presence of a spinal cord or CNS tumor. This is the first report of an infant with features of NF, whose presenting symptom of a spinal cord tumor was localized symmetrical dermatomal itch. Moreover, we review the literature of localized pruritus in CNS and spinal cord tumors and peripheral nervous system conditions.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 2
keywords = nervous system
(Clic here for more details about this article)

5/78. Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma: report of a case diagnosed by intraoperative cytopathological examination.

    The authors present an unusual case of a 13-yr-old boy with a 3-mo history of seizures. A CT scan showed a contrast-enhancing mass located in the left temporal lobe. The patient underwent a stereotatic-guided craniotomy; intraoperative cytological diagnosis was performed by the smear technique, showing a pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma. The tumor was totally resected. Definitive diagnosis was established by examination of paraffin-embedded material. Six months after the surgical intervention, the patient is doing well, with no radiological evidence of recurrence. The cytological differential diagnosis of giant cell lesions of the central nervous system is emphasized.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = nervous system
(Clic here for more details about this article)

6/78. Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma--a clinicopathological study.

    Six cases of Pleomorphic Xanthoastrocytoma of central nervous system are presented. One case presented with recurrent refractory seizures and others as intracranial space occupying lesions. They were located in temporal/parietal lobes, were partly cystic and partly solid on CT scan, enhancing with contrast. Histopathology was characterized by pleomorphic giant cells and cells with vacuolated cytoplasm. glial fibrillary acidic protein was strongly positive in all the cases.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = nervous system
(Clic here for more details about this article)

7/78. Intraoperative diagnosis of tanycytic ependymoma: pitfalls and differential diagnosis.

    Smear preparations have become increasingly popular in the intraoperative assessment of central nervous system pathology. The cytological features of a histologically proven tanycytic ependymoma are presented with the pitfalls and differential diagnosis. The smear preparation showed a glial neoplasm composed of cells with long, bipolar glial processes and oval to spindle-shaped nuclei resembling those seen in pilocytic astrocytoma smears. The smear characteristics of an ependymoma usually show remarkably uniform round-to-oval nuclei, fluffy glial processes, and a perivascular nuclear-free zone (pseudorosetting). None of these features were present in our case. The accompanying frozen section showed a fascicular spindle-cell tumor that resembled a schwanomma, a commonly reported misinterpretation of the histology of tanycytic ependymomas on frozen sections. Careful attention to the radiological findings, the surgeon's impression, and the intraoperative smear preparation details should allow one to include this uncommon entity in the differential diagnosis of spinal neoplasms.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = nervous system
(Clic here for more details about this article)

8/78. Sudden death due to primary diffuse leptomeningeal gliomatosis.

    Tumors of the central nervous system are an unusual cause of sudden death. This report describes the sudden death of a presumed healthy 28-year-old woman from primary diffuse leptomeningeal gliomatosis. She presented to an emergency room with headache and vomiting, subsequently became unresponsive and was pronounced dead 14 h later. autopsy revealed a diffuse extensive infiltrate of well-differentiated astrocytoma in the leptomeninges of the brain and spinal cord without an underlying parenchymal tumor. Primary diffuse leptomeningeal gliomatosis is a rare tumor that arises within the leptomeninges from small neuroglial heterotopic rests that undergo neoplastic transformation. Grossly. this tumor can mimic leptomeningeal carcinomatosis, pachymeningitis, tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, and fungal infections. However, the histologic features of primary diffuse leptomeningeal gliomatosis should allow it to be readily distinguished from grossly similar conditions. The mechanism of death in this case is most likely tumor obstruction of cerebrospinal fluid outflow resulting in the usual complications seen with increased intracranial pressure. Although this tumor is aggressive and is associated with a rapidly progressive fatal course, it has not been previously associated with sudden death.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = nervous system
(Clic here for more details about this article)

9/78. Desmoplastic neuroepithelial tumor of infancy in the nevus sebaceus syndrome: report of a unique constellation and review of the literature.

    The nevus sebaceus syndrome (NSS) is a neurocutaneous disorder characterized by unilateral hyperplasia of skin appendages and skeletal hemihypertrophy, hemimegalencephaly, or hemiatrophy along with disabling seizures. Despite the proneness of the dermal stigmata to eventually undergo neoplastic transformation, the malformative lesions of the central nervous system rarely evolve into frank tumors. We present the case of a 10-year-old girl with left-sided sebaceus nevi, ipsilateral enlargement of the skull, and a desmoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNET) in the right fronto-parietal area of the brain. The tumor was removed by surgery. Histologically, it corresponded to a mitotically active small-cell anaplastic astrocytoma with genuine desmoplasia. Investigative methods included immunohistochemical positivity for glial fibrillary acidic protein, lack of expression of neuronal markers, and ultrastructural documentation of sheaths of basal lamina and collagen around tumor cells. A survey of the literature of brain tumors associated with NSS revealed two cases of histologically verified pilocytic astrocytomas, and one each of a choroid plexus papilloma, a mixed glioma, and a meningioma, as well as a subependymal giant cell astrocytoma--the latter possibly in an overlap syndrome of NSS and tuberous sclerosis. We hypothesize that the tumor described herein, one involving both atypical differentiation and enhanced growth potential, is paradigmatic of neuropathological events to be expected in the NSS.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = nervous system
(Clic here for more details about this article)

10/78. Multiple cystic brain lesions in a patient with pilocytic astrocytoma.

    Pilocytic astrocytomas are usually present as solitary posterior cranial fossa tumours. An unusual case of pilocytic astrocytoma in a 3 year and 8 month old boy is presented. The patient presented over the course of 10 months with intermittent headaches, vomiting, gait ataxia and drowsiness. After extensive investigations magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed widespread lesions throughout the central nervous system, including multiple cystic cerebral grey matter lesions. A brain biopsy was performed and pathological studies revealed pilocytic astrocytoma. The literature pertaining to neuraxis dissemination of pilocytic astrocytomas in the paediatric population is reviewed. There are only a very limited number of reports of pilocytic astrocytoma ca using multiple brain lesions, with no publications of multiple cystic brain lesions. We believe this to be a unique case of pilocytic astrocytoma presenting with widespread cystic lesions throughout the brain.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = nervous system
(Clic here for more details about this article)
| Next ->


Leave a message about 'Astrocytoma'


We do not evaluate or guarantee the accuracy of any content in this site. Click here for the full disclaimer.