Cases reported "Astrocytoma"

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1/217. Multiple postoperative intracerebral haematomas remote from the site of craniotomy.

    A postoperative haemorrhage is a common and serious complication of a neurosurgical procedure. It usually occurs at the site of the surgery, but on occasion a postoperative haematoma is found at a distance from the previous craniotomy. Multiple postoperative haemorrhages are extremely rare. We report the case of a 63-year-old woman, operated on for the removal of a supratentorial astrocytoma, who developed in the early post-operative period multiple bilateral intracerebral haematomas without involvement of the surgical bed.
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2/217. Atypical pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma.

    A 65-year-old man experienced an ictal episode. CT revealed a left capsulo-thalamic mass, and SPET showed hypoperfusion of the left cerebral emisphere. The lesion was subtotally removed, and postoperative radiotherapy was given. Pathological examination demonstrated an "atypical" pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma. The patient died of massive regrowth of the tumor 22 months after surgery. This case is discussed in light of the pertinent literature.
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ranking = 0.125
keywords = operative
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3/217. Symptomatic vasospasm after resection of a suprasellar pilocytic astrocytoma: case report and possible pathogenesis.

    BACKGROUND: Cerebral vasospasm from pathology other than subarachnoid hemorrhage is uncommon. A case of severe vasospasm after resection of a suprasellar pilocytic astrocytoma is reported. methods: A 45-year-old male presented with headache, left facial numbness, bilateral visual loss, and ataxia. Evaluation revealed a large suprasellar tumor, which was resected. Pathologic examination showed pilocytic astrocytoma. The patient developed hemiparesis and aphasia on the fifth postoperative day. Vascular spasm was documented on angiography and by transcranial Doppler. RESULTS: Intraarterial papaverine resulted in moderate angiographic improvement. Attempts to open middle cerebral artery branches with angioplasty were unsuccessful. The patient subsequently developed a left middle cerebral artery infarct. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first description of vasospasm after resection of an astrocytoma. Possible mechanisms contributing to this unusual complication after resection of tumors are discussed.
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ranking = 0.125
keywords = operative
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4/217. Interventional magnetic resonance imaging guided aspiration and biopsy of a cystic midbrain tumor.

    Interventional magnetic resonance imaging defines the intraoperative application of magnetic resonance imaging technology, permitting the surgeon to work in an open magnetic field. The application of this technology to pediatric neurosurgery allows precise intraoperative localization of pathology, real-time assessment of the anatomical consequences of surgical and anesthetic interventions, accountability of brain shifts, confirmation of the exact site of biopsy or completeness of lesion removal, and immediate identification of some intraoperative and early postoperative complications. We present the case of a young boy with a cystic left midbrain tumor who underwent interventional magnetic resonance imaging guided aspiration and biopsy to illustrate the surgical advantages of this technology.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = operative
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5/217. Intraoperative validation of functional magnetic resonance imaging and cortical reorganization patterns in patients with brain tumors involving the primary motor cortex.

    OBJECT: The purpose of the present study was to compare the results of functional magnetic resonance (fMR) imaging with those of intraoperative cortical stimulation in patients who harbored tumors close to or involving the primary motor area and to assess the usefulness of fMR imaging in the objective evaluation of motor function as part of the surgical strategy in the treatment of these patients. methods: A total of 11 consecutive patients, whose tumors were close to or involving the central region, underwent presurgical blood oxygen level-dependent fMR imaging while performing a motor paradigm that required them to clench and spread their hands contra- and ipsilateral to the tumor. Statistical cross-correlation functional maps covering the primary and secondary motor cortical areas were generated and overlaid onto high-resolution anatomical MR images. Intraoperative electrical cortical stimulation was performed to validate the presurgical fMR imaging findings. In nine (82%) of 11 patients, the anatomical fMR imaging localization of motor areas could be verified by intraoperative electrical cortical stimulation. In seven patients two or more activation sites were demonstrated on fMR imaging, which were considered a consequence of reorganization phenomena of the motor cortex: contralateral primary motor area (nine patients), contralateral premotor area (four patients), ipsilateral primary motor area (two patients), and ipsilateral premotor area (four patients). CONCLUSIONS: Functional MR imaging can be used to perform objective evaluation of motor function and surgical planning in patients who harbor lesions near or involving the primary motor cortex. Correlation between fMR imaging findings and the results of direct electrical brain stimulation is high, although not 100%. Based on their study, the authors believe that cortical reorganization patterns of motor areas might explain the differences in motor function and the diversity of postoperative motor function among patients with central tumors.
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ranking = 1
keywords = operative
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6/217. Intra-operative optical method using intrinsic signals for localization of sensorimotor area in patients with brain tumor.

    The purpose of this study is intra-operatively to localize the sensorimotor area by intrinsic optical method detecting the changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and cortical temperature following neuronal activity during median nerve stimulation. In 18 patients with brain tumors located around the sensorimotor cortex, cortical recording of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) was performed and localized changes in rCBF during median nerve stimulation were measured by a laser-Doppler flowmeter on the locations of SEPs and around the activation area obtained by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In two patients, cortical thermomapping was also performed during median nerve stimulation. In fMRI study, the significant activation area of sensorimotor could be obtained in 17 of 18 patients. In cortical recording of SEPs, the polarity reversal of N20 and P20 was observed in 14 of the 18 patients. In 9 of the 14 patients in whom SEPs could be recorded, the localized changes in rCBF, corresponding to the stimulation, were detected in the N20 area. In 2 of the 4 patients in whom N20 could not be recorded successfully, the localized changes in rCBF could be detected. The increase in rCBF during the stimulation was 18.3% /- 5.3% (mean /- SD, n = 11). Thermomapping could demonstrate the localized area, where the increase in rCBF was also detected, by observation of the changes in cortical temperature during the stimulation. The intra-operative intrinsic optical method detecting rCBF and cortical temperature in combination with recording of SEPs may be considered useful for brain functional localization related to neurosurgical disorders.
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ranking = 0.75
keywords = operative
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7/217. Multicentric juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma occurring primarily in the trigone of the lateral ventricle.

    The authors report a juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma (JPA) in the trigone of an 11-year-old girl, apparently with disseminated lesions that disappeared spontaneously after the removal of primary lesion. gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance images (MRIs) showed features suggestive of the development of multicentric spread of the tumor at the initial diagnosis. Histologically the primary tumor showed the typical features of a JPA. Serial postoperative MRIs demonstrated that everything except a remnant of the primary tumor seemed to regress spontaneously without any adjuvant therapy. The site of origin of this tumor is thought to be the subependymal glia of the occipital lobe.
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ranking = 0.125
keywords = operative
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8/217. Peduncular hallucinosis: an unusual sequel to surgical intervention in the suprasellar region.

    Peduncular hallucinations are formed visual images often associated with sleep disturbance, and are caused by lesions in the midbrain, pons and diencephalon. In the present study, we report two patients who developed peduncular hallucinations following surgery in the suprasellar region. In one of these, the peduncular hallucinations were a sequel to endoscopic third ventriculostomy, while in the other, they were due to diencephalon and mid-brain compression by a postoperative clot following excision of a hypothalamic astrocytoma.
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ranking = 0.125
keywords = operative
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9/217. The management of desmoplastic neuroepithelial tumours in childhood.

    The authors report on the clinicopathological aspects of and management strategies for the group of rare, large hemispheric childhood tumours recently classified as desmoplastic infantile ganglioglioma (DIGG), desmoplastic astrocytoma of infancy (DACI) and pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA). Between 1985 and 1997, ten children (4 with DACIs, 4 with DIGGs and 2 with PXAs) with a median age of 9.5 months were operated on. All these patients had complete surgical resections, with two having a preoperative biopsy. This led to an erroneous diagnosis in both cases of malignant grade 4 astrocytoma. As a result, one patient had preoperative chemotherapy with no effect. There was one perioperative death. histology revealed heterogeneous tumours with malignant looking areas in 8 of the specimens. None of the patients has had any postoperative adjuvant treatment. All surviving patients are alive at follow-up (median 4.2 years). Despite their often malignant appearance, these tumours have an excellent prognosis, but they can present formidable surgical challenges when they occur in very young age patients. We believe that surgical excision can offer a cure and that adjuvant treatment is not necessary. Finally, biopsy is of little value and may even lead to an erroneous diagnosis and subsequent mismanagement.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = operative
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10/217. Use of a portable CT scanner during resection of subcortical supratentorial astrocytomas of childhood.

    The development of intraoperative imaging has made it possible to visualize shifting brain structures during surgery, and may allow greater intraoperative discrimination of normal and abnormal tissue. This may provide greater confidence to the neurosurgeon to proceed with a more extensive resection while decreasing postoperative morbidity. We investigated the intraoperative use of a portable CT scanner in the resection of 4 cases of supratentorial, subcortical astrocytomas of childhood to assess its usefulness in determining the endpoint of the dissection. We operated on 4 patients, ages 3-17, with astrocytomas. Three were thalamic, and 1 was based primarily in the caudate nucleus. The approach to the basal ganglia was transcallosal in 3 and transtemporal in 1. Specific observations on the intraoperative use of the portable CT scanner included its overall facility, any additional operative time required, the overall quality of the images, intraoperative decisions made based on the images and problems associated with its use. These observations are presented with a review of intraoperative imaging as it pertains to deep pediatric brain tumors. The CT scanner was helpful in limiting the dissection of the hypothalamic and midbrain regions and in localizing remaining abnormal tissue. The scans allowed informed decisions about leaving margins of the tumor which were adjacent to vital structures, but dit not prove to be a decisive factor in providing a complete resection. The following observations are worth noting: (1) average imaging time was 20 min per scan; (2) the extent and location of residual enhancing tumor was easily identified despite other materials in the surgical bed; (3) air/tissue interfaces limit resolution; (4) tumors retain contrast long enough to obtain multiple scans without additional dye, and (5) the cost profile of a mobile CT scanner is superior to that of a fixed intraoperative CT scanner.
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ranking = 1.125
keywords = operative
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