Cases reported "Astrocytoma"

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1/240. Secondary glioblastoma remarkably reduced by steroid administration after anaplastic transformation from gliomatosis cerebri--case report.

    A 45-year-old female presented with gliomatosis cerebri manifesting as hemiballismus-like involuntary movement in the arm, motor weakness in the leg, and hypesthesia in her left side. Computed tomography showed only diffuse swelling of the right cerebral hemisphere, but T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging revealed a diffuse lesion spreading from the right thalamus to the temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes on the same side. No abnormal enhancement was recognized. cerebral angiography showed no specific finding. A right occipital lobectomy was performed to confirm the diagnosis of gliomatosis cerebri. Anaplastic transformation was recognized 5 months later. The disease did not resolve with radiation or interferon administration, but steroid therapy achieved remarkably effective tumor regression. The patient died due to pneumonia. autopsy showed the features of diffuse glioblastoma. Steroid therapy may be an effective treatment for gliomatosis cerebri before the terminal stage.
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2/240. Electroconvulsive treatment of a bipolar adolescent postcraniotomy for brain stem astrocytoma.

    This is the first reported use of electroconvulsive treatment (ECT) in an adolescent with bipolar mania who had been treated with craniectomy for an intracranial neoplasm. The reported case is of a 16-year-old girl with a history of brain stem glioma (pontomesencephalic astrocytoma) diagnosed at 13 years of age. She presented in a psychiatric emergency room with suicidal ideation, depressed mood, irritability, olfactory hallucinations, early insomnia, grandiosity, and guilt. Her symptoms failed to respond to a trial of an antidepressant, mood stabilizer alone, and mood stabilizer in conjunction with a neuroleptic. The decision to use ECT was based on suicidal ideation, extreme disinhibition, and danger to self and others. Significant improvement in mood and remission in psychosis were noted after the eighth treatment. Comparison of 2-week pre-ECT and 3-month post-ECT cognitive testing revealed no change in IQ. This report highlights rapid response and the ability to tolerate ECT in an adolescent diagnosed with bipolar disorder, who had also been treated with radiation and craniotomy.
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3/240. Secondary supratentorial anaplastic astrocytoma following treatment of medulloblastoma.

    The development of secondary tumours is a rare but well known late effect of radiation therapy of lesions in the central nervous system. Most radiation-induced tumours are of mesenchymal origin, but on rare occasions gliomas can occur. We describe a patient in whom a supratentorial anaplastic astrocytoma developed 15 years after surgery and radiotherapy for a childhood posterior fossa medulloblastoma. A concise review of the pertinent literature is given.
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4/240. Eighteen-year survival of a patient with malignant pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma associated with von Recklinghausen neurofibromatosis.

    The authors report the first adult case of pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma associated with neurofibromatosis-1. A 40-year-old man with history of neurofibromatosis-1 underwent total removal of a right temporo-parietal superficial glioma followed by radiation therapy. Eighteen years after surgery, the patient remained well with no tumour recurrence, which prompted review of the surgical material. The diagnosis of pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma was then made though the tumour exhibited malignant features histologically, with marked necrosis. This extremely good clinical outcome suggest that some astrocytoma tumours in patients with neurofibromatosis might be associated with a favourable prognosis.
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5/240. spinal cord astrocytoma: response to PCV chemotherapy.

    Information regarding the value of chemotherapy for spinal cord astrocytomas that progress after irradiation is limited. We describe a patient whose conus medullaris astrocytoma responded to PCV (procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine) chemotherapy after failing radiation and cisplatin-based chemotherapy. PCV should be considered in patients with progressive spinal cord astrocytomas.
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keywords = radiation
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6/240. Successful use of intracavitary bleomycin for low-grade astrocytoma tumor cyst.

    We report successful use of bleomycin in a low-grade astrocytoma tumor cyst of the tectal plate. A 6-year-old male underwent subtotal resection of a low-grade astrocytoma of the tectal plate followed by chemotherapy and proton beam radiation at age 2 and a half. Despite resolution of the solid portion of the tumor, serial MRI showed enlargement of a bilobar tumor cyst 3 years after the original diagnosis. The patient developed progressive ataxia, short-term memory loss and dysconjugate gaze. Following stereotactic placement of an Ommaya reservoir into the cyst, Isovue contrast and CT scan were used to confirm the integrity of the cyst. Five consecutive daily doses of 3.0 mg of bleomycin were instilled into the cyst after removal of cyst fluid. The therapy was well tolerated in the outpatient setting, and the clinical findings resolved. Subsequent CT and MRI at 4 months and 2 years after bleomycin confirmed no recurrence of the tumor or cyst.
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7/240. Radiation-induced blood-brain barrier damage in astrocytoma: relation to elevated gelatinase B and urokinase.

    Successful management of brain tumors prolongs life, raising the risk of delayed injury secondary to the treatment. Radiation therapy, a mainstay of brain tumor treatment, can damage the cerebral blood vessels. Acutely a breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) may be seen, but fibrosis complicates radiation injury in the chronic phase. matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and plasminogen activators are two matrix-degrading proteolytic enzymes, which are induced by radiation. They disrupt the basal lamina around cerebral capillaries and open the BBB. We report a patient with an astrocytoma managed by partial resection and external beam irradiation to maximal tolerable doses. The patient later developed malignant brain edema shortly after stereotactic radiosurgery. Tissue obtained during surgical debulking to control the edema showed very high levels of gelatinase B (92 kDa type IV collagenase) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA). Tumor cells were absent from the biopsy and subsequent autopsy specimens, but necrosis with fibrosis of the blood vessels was seen. If abnormal matrix enzyme function participates in the expression of radiation injury, then inhibitors to such enzymes may provide one strategy for controlling cerebrovascular damage after therapeutic brain radiation.
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keywords = radiation
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8/240. Malignant transformation of a dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor. Case report.

    A 29-year-old man presented in 1984 with a recent onset of partial seizures marked by speech arrest. electroencephalography identified a left frontotemporal dysrhythmia. Computerized tomography (CT) scanning revealed a superficial hypodense nonenhancing lesion in the midleft frontal convexity, with some remodeling of the overlying skull. The patient was transferred to the london health Sciences Centre for subtotal resection of what was diagnosed as a "fibrillary astrocytoma (microcystic)." He received no chemotherapy or radiation therapy and remained well for 11 years. The patient presented again in late 1995 with progressive seizure activity. Both CT and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a recurrent enhancing partly cystic lesion. A Grade IV astrocytoma was resected, and within the malignant tumor was a superficial area reminiscent of a dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT). Data on the lesion that had been resected in 1984 were reviewed, and in retrospect the lesion was identified as a DNT of the complex form. It was bordered by cortical dysplasia and contained glial nodules, in addition to the specific glioneuronal element. The glial nodules were significant for moderate pleomorphism and rare mitotic figures. The Ki67 labeling index averaged 0.3% in the glial nodules and up to 4% focally. cells were rarely Ki67 positive within the glioneuronal component. This case is the first documented example of malignant transformation of a DNT. It serves as a warning of the potential for malignant transformation in this entity, which has been traditionally accepted as benign. This warning may be especially warranted when confronted with complex forms of DNT. The completeness of resection in the benign state is of paramount importance.
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ranking = 1
keywords = radiation
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9/240. Neuropsychological consequences of cerebellar tumour resection in children: cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome in a paediatric population.

    Acquired cerebellar lesions in adults have been shown to produce impairments in higher function as exemplified by the cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome. It is not yet known whether similar findings occur in children with acquired cerebellar lesions, and whether developmental factors influence their presentation. In studies to date, survivors of childhood cerebellar tumours who demonstrate long-term deficits in cognitive functions have undergone surgery as well as cranial irradiation or methotrexate treatment. Investigation of the effects of the cerebellar lesion independent of the known deleterious effects of these agents is important for understanding the role of the cerebellum in cognitive and affective development and for informing treatment and rehabilitation strategies. If the cerebellar contribution to cognition and affect is significant, then damage in childhood may influence a wide range of psychological processes, both as an immediate consequence and as these processes fail to develop normally later on. In this study we evaluated neuropsychological data in 19 children who underwent resection of cerebellar tumours but who received neither cranial irradiation nor methotrexate chemotherapy. Impairments were noted in executive function, including planning and sequencing, and in visual-spatial function, expressive language, verbal memory and modulation of affect. These deficits were common and in some cases could be dissociated from motor deficits. Lesions of the vermis in particular were associated with dysregulation of affect. Behavioural deficits were more apparent in older than younger children. These results reveal that clinically relevant neuropsychological changes may occur following cerebellar tumour resection in children. Age at the time of surgery and the site of the cerebellar lesion influence the neurobehavioural outcome. The results of the present study indicate that the cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome is evident in children as well as in adults, and they provide further clinical evidence that the cerebellum is an essential node in the distributed neural circuitry subserving higher-order behaviours.
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ranking = 2
keywords = radiation
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10/240. Contralateral cortical diaschisis in a patient with cerebellar astrocytoma after radiation therapy.

    Contralateral cerebellar diaschisis, hypometabolism in the cerebellum contralateral to a cortical lesion, is a well described phenomenon in patients with stroke and brain tumor. However, few reports exist of patients with cerebellar lesions with the finding of contralateral cortical hypometabolism. The authors present a case of a patient with a right cerebellar astrocytoma after surgical resection and radiation therapy in which fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomographic imaging, performed to rule out recurrent tumor, revealed global hypometabolism in the left cerebral cortex. The concept of contralateral cortical diaschisis and possible mechanisms and clinical implications are reviewed.
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ranking = 5
keywords = radiation
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