Cases reported "Ataxia"

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1/76. Increased density of oligodendrocytes in childhood ataxia with diffuse central hypomyelination (CACH) syndrome: neuropathological and biochemical study of two cases.

    We report neuropathological, biochemical and molecular studies on two patients with childhood ataxia with diffuse central nervous system hypomyelination (CACH) syndrome, a leukodystrophy recently defined according to clinical and radiological criteria. Both had severe cavitating orthochromatic leukodystrophy without atrophy, predominating in hemispheric white matter, whereas U-fibers, internal capsule, corpus callosum, anterior commissure and cerebellar white matter were relatively spared. The severity of white matter lesions contrasted with the rarity of myelin breakdown products and astroglial and microglial reactions. In the white matter, there was an increase in a homogeneous cell population with the morphological features of oligodendrocytes, in many instances presenting an abundant cytoplasm like myelination glia. These cells were negative for glial fibrillary acidic protein and antibodies PGM1 and MIB1. Some were positive for myelin basic protein, proteolipid protein (PLP), and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein, but the majority were positive for human 2'-3' cyclic nucleotide 3' phosphodiesterase and all were positive for carbonic anhydrase ii, confirming that they are oligodendrocytes. Myelin protein and lipid content were reduced. The PLP gene, analyzed in one case, was not mutated or duplicated. The increased number of oligodendrocytes without mitotic activity suggests an intrinsic oligodendroglial defect or an abnormal interaction with axons or other glial cells. This neuropathological study supports the notion that CACH syndrome constitutes a specific entity.
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2/76. Neurologic sequelae of treatment of primary CNS lymphomas.

    Novel efficient and aggressive treatment protocols for primary CNS lymphomas have resulted in an increasing number of long term survivors. Follow up data show that in a substantial fraction of these patients, treatment benefits are overshadowed by neurotoxic sequelae. Neurotoxicity especially affects the older age group, presenting as cognitive dysfunction, ataxia or dementia as a consequence of leukoencephalopathy and brain atrophy. The combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy seems to be particularly hazardous, though data are too sparse to draw any definite conclusions yet. Long term follow up of patients included in clinical studies therefore should not only evaluate survival or time to tumour progression, but also serial neuropsychometric evaluation and quality of life assessment.
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3/76. Ataxic form of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP).

    We reported a 64-year-old male with an eight-month history of gait disturbance and sensory impairment. The patient initially noticed unsteadiness of gait and numbness in his feet, and these symptoms progressed until he was unable to walk without assistance five months later. Vibratory sensation and position sense were markedly diminished, and deep tendon reflexes were absent in all extremities. Motor conduction velocities were slow with prolonged distal latencies, and sensory nerve action potentials (SNAP) were not elicited. sural nerve biopsy revealed a mild loss of myelinated fibres and segmental demyelination. cerebrospinal fluid showed normal cell count with protein 526 mg/dL. Anti-GM1, anti-GM2 and anti-GA1 antibodies in serum were positive. We diagnosed chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) presenting ataxia. Steroid therapy provided immediate improvement of symptoms and signs. This case suggests that CIDP should be considered as one of the potential causes of ataxic neuropathy.
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4/76. An 'automatic pilot' for the hand in human posterior parietal cortex: toward reinterpreting optic ataxia.

    We designed a protocol distinguishing between automatic and intentional motor reactions to changes in target location triggered at movement onset. In response to target jumps, but not to a similar change cued by a color switch, normal subjects often could not avoid automatically correcting fast aiming movements. This suggests that an 'automatic pilot' relying on spatial vision drives fast corrective arm movements that can escape intentional control. In a patient with a bilateral posterior parietal cortex (PPC) lesion, motor corrections could only be slow and deliberate. We propose that 'on-line' control is the most specific function of the PPC and that optic ataxia could result from a disruption of automatic hand guidance.
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5/76. A female with central anticholinergic syndrome responsive to neostigmine.

    Central anticholinergic syndrome is a rarely observed condition in children. The occurrence of this syndrome after ingestion of solanum pseudocapsicum is infrequent because findings tend to be milder and localized to the gastrointestinal system, without central nervous system involvement. Most patients do not present with diagnostic problems because their relatives can usually report any ingestion of poisonous agents; however, when drug poisoning or plant ingestion is uncertain, a differential diagnosis with encephalitis must be considered. physostigmine salicylate is the specific antidote because it crosses the blood-brain barrier because of its tertiary ammonium group. neostigmine methylsulfate has a quaternary ammonium group, which prevents its penetration through the blood-brain barrier; hence its primary influence is believed to be due to its action on the peripheral nervous system. We describe a female with central anticholinergic syndrome caused by ingestion of solanum pseudocapsicum. A slow intravenous infusion of neostigmine methylsulfate (0.03 mg/kg) immediately resolved the clinical picture. To our knowledge, this case is the first reported of central anticholinergic syndrome occurring after ingestion of solanum pseudocapsicum in a child and the first report of a complete and rapid remission after intravenous neostigmine methylsulfate administration.
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6/76. Sensory ataxic dominant neuropathy associated with polyarteritis nodosa.

    A 68-year-old man with sensory ataxic dominant neuropathy associated with polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) had deep sensory disturbance with unsteady gait and absence of the achilles tendon reflex. Examination revealed weight loss, elevated CRP level, negative antineutrophil cytoplasm antibodies, decreased M-wave amplitude in the peroneal motor nerve and absence of action potentials in the sural sensory nerve. sural nerve biopsy revealed a marked loss of myelinated fibers, myelin ovoid formation and necrotizing angiitis of large epineurial arterioles. Renal biopsy revealed global and/or segmental necrotizing angiitis in glomeruli, but not in the arcuate artery. These pathological findings were distinct from those of PAN, particularly microscopic polyangiitis (MPA). Treatment with a steroid improved the deep sensory disturbance, unsteady gait, and CRP level. This case is similar to ataxic neuropathy which can arise from various disorders. This is the first report of a case of sensory ataxic dominant neuropathy associated with MPA in PAN.
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7/76. Electromyographic (EMG) biofeedback in the comprehensive treatment of central pain and ataxic tremor following thalamic stroke.

    Peripheral pain and ataxic tremor can appear suddenly following thalamic stroke and can significantly alter a patient's psychological, social, and physical functioning. The present paper reports the case of a 70-year-old Caucasian female who sustained an acute left posterior cerebral artery infarction involving the thalamus and left mesiotemporal regions. She subsequently developed Central Poststroke pain and ataxic movement of her right arm and hand in addition to a significant right-side claudication. She was treated over 16 weeks (6 weeks of EMG biofeedback and 10 weeks of psychotherapy) with a combination of EMG biofeedback, progressive muscle relaxation, behavioral pain coping skills training, Forced Use Therapy, and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy 7 years after her initial cerebral accident. The case demonstrates the utility of biofeedback when combined as part of a comprehensive treatment program to address the multiple complications associated with thalamic stroke.
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ranking = 7668.2281227653
keywords = tremor
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8/76. Presentation of a previously asymptomatic Chiari I malformation by a flexion injury to the neck.

    Flexion injury and/or whiplash injury to the neck in car accidents are usually trivial injuries with no serious neurological deficits. Our intention was to point out the importance to proceed with diagnostic procedures if neurological deficits do occur in order to reveal the true cause of the deficit. The paper presents the case of a 35-year-old woman who sustained a flexion injury to the neck. A relatively trivial injury to the neck promoted a progressive neurological deterioration. The standard diagnostic procedures (x-ray, computed tomography scan) were normal. Further diagnostics with magnetic resonance imaging was required to reveal an underlying Chiari I malformation. Finally, the operative decompression of the craniocervical junction was performed. Following the surgical treatment, the patient's clinical symptoms regressed. One year after her discharge, she remains in good physical condition. To our knowledge, this case is the first report of the manifestation of Chiari I malformation in the adult as a result of a flexion or whiplash injury of the neck. This unusual case suggests that in a trivial flexion injury to the neck sustained in a car accident, which presents with serious neurological dysfunction, and where the standard diagnostic procedures are normal, the possibility of underlying congenital abnormality, such as Chiari I malformation should be considered.
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9/76. Oculopalatal tremor with tardive ataxia.

    Oculopalatal tremor consists of palatal tremor and pendular nystagmus and may develop in a delayed fashion after an acute brainstem lesion. Delayed sequelae are generally restricted to the eyes and branchial-derived muscles, such as those of the palate. We report three cases of oculopalatal tremor that subsequently developed disabling delayed-onset ataxia and emphasize the potential for this significant complication after larger bilateral acute brainstem lesions with sparing of the inferior olive.
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ranking = 10735.519371871
keywords = tremor
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10/76. Increasing functional communication through relaxation training and neuromuscular feedback.

    The following research examined the effects of behavioural relaxation training and biofeedback on ataxic tremor of an adult with acquired brain injury. The participant was taught relaxation techniques before biofeedback was introduced. Once he was proficient in relaxation, these skills were then used as a foundation for biofeedback training. Specific skills, facilitating the use of a letter board, were taught when the participant was able to relax the appropriate musculature to criterion. The results demonstrated that the participant learned how to significantly decrease the severity of tremor. As a result, he became more proficient at communicating via his letter board. Collateral effects were increased attempts at communication and fewer episodes of anger.
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ranking = 3067.2912491061
keywords = tremor
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