Cases reported "Ataxia"

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1/202. vitamin e deficiency ataxia associated with adenoma.

    Vitamin E is one of the most important lipid-soluble antioxidant nutrient. Severe vitamin e deficiency (VED) can have a profound effect on the central nervous system. VED causes ataxia and peripheral neuropathy that resembles Friedreich's ataxia. We report here a patient presenting this syndrome, but also a prolactin and FSH adenoma. Both the neurological syndromes and the adenoma regressed after treatment with alpha-tocopherol. Although, the presence of the prolactinoma in this patient may not be related to his vitamin e deficiency, alpha-tocopherol treatment seems to be beneficial and might usefully be tested in patients with hypophyseal secreting other forms of adenoma.
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ranking = 1
keywords = peripheral neuropathy, neuropathy, peripheral, nervous system
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2/202. Immunoadsorption plasmapheresis in acute ataxic neuropathy.

    Acute ataxic neuropathy is characterized by sensory ataxia and areflexia. There is no established treatment. We tried immunoadsorption plasmapheresis 15 days after the onset for a 46-year-old woman suffering from this neuropathy. She could not walk even with assistance because of sensory ataxia. A sural nerve biopsy revealed active axonal degeneration and loss of myelinated fibers. We tried 5 sessions of plasmapheresis during 2 weeks. She could walk with assistance 12 days after the beginning of the plasmapheresis treatment. It took 3 months for her to be able to walk over 5 m without assistance, and she had severe sensory ataxia over a 17 month follow-up period. Immunoadsorption plasmapheresis started within 2 weeks after the onset of acute ataxic neuropathy may have beneficial effects if the axonal degeneration is mild. The plasmapheresis, however, should be continued for a longer period. A double blind study is necessary to clarify the effectiveness of this treatment on acute ataxic neuropathy.
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ranking = 1.4746957479997
keywords = neuropathy, nerve
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3/202. Increased density of oligodendrocytes in childhood ataxia with diffuse central hypomyelination (CACH) syndrome: neuropathological and biochemical study of two cases.

    We report neuropathological, biochemical and molecular studies on two patients with childhood ataxia with diffuse central nervous system hypomyelination (CACH) syndrome, a leukodystrophy recently defined according to clinical and radiological criteria. Both had severe cavitating orthochromatic leukodystrophy without atrophy, predominating in hemispheric white matter, whereas U-fibers, internal capsule, corpus callosum, anterior commissure and cerebellar white matter were relatively spared. The severity of white matter lesions contrasted with the rarity of myelin breakdown products and astroglial and microglial reactions. In the white matter, there was an increase in a homogeneous cell population with the morphological features of oligodendrocytes, in many instances presenting an abundant cytoplasm like myelination glia. These cells were negative for glial fibrillary acidic protein and antibodies PGM1 and MIB1. Some were positive for myelin basic protein, proteolipid protein (PLP), and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein, but the majority were positive for human 2'-3' cyclic nucleotide 3' phosphodiesterase and all were positive for carbonic anhydrase ii, confirming that they are oligodendrocytes. Myelin protein and lipid content were reduced. The PLP gene, analyzed in one case, was not mutated or duplicated. The increased number of oligodendrocytes without mitotic activity suggests an intrinsic oligodendroglial defect or an abnormal interaction with axons or other glial cells. This neuropathological study supports the notion that CACH syndrome constitutes a specific entity.
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ranking = 0.036046291520334
keywords = nervous system
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4/202. IgG anti-GQ1b positive acute ataxia without ophthalmoplegia.

    IgG anti-GQ1b antibody was present in a patient with acute ataxia and areflexia without ophthalmoplegia or elementary sensory loss. Sensory nerve conduction studies and somatosensory evoked potentials were normal, but postural body sway analysis showed dysfunction of the proprioceptive afferent system. The clinical presentation and laboratory results for this patient resemble those of miller fisher syndrome, except for the lack of ophthalmoplegia. This case may represent part of an IgG anti-GQ1b syndrome.
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ranking = 0.0052102530220551
keywords = nerve
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5/202. Clinical range and MRI in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease with heterozygosity at codon 129 and prion protein type 2.

    A 68 year old woman with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is described, who neither showed characteristic EEG abnormalities nor a positive test of the neuronal protein 14-3-3 or neuron specific enolase (NSE) in CSF, despite a clinical presentation with ataxia of cerebellar type, rapidly progressive dementia, myoclonus, and marked hyperintense signal abnormalities in the deep cortical layers and the basal ganglia on T2 and diffusion weighted MRI. Moreover she showed atypical clinical features with a syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (ADH) secretion (SIADH) and a peripheral sensorimotor polyneuropathy. Whether these disturbances are independent of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease or a feature of it is discussed. It has recently been shown that in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease different clinical and pathological phenotypes correlate with the polymorphism at codon 129 of the prion protein gene (PRNP) and the type of the protease resistant fragment that accumulates in the brain. According to the new classification at least six sporadic variants of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease exist. The molecular genetic analysis showed heterozygosity of PRNP at codon 129 for methionine and valine and the presence of PrP(CJD) type 2 in the brain of this patient. As a new feature of changes on MRI, striking cortical changes of hyperintense signals are described in diffusion weighted as well as T2 weighted MRI that directly correlate with the histomorphological spongy degeneration of the brain in this region. In cases of rapidly progressive dementia, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease always needs to be considered even if unusual features are present and current diagnostic criteria are not in favour of this disease.
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ranking = 0.29827493460127
keywords = neuropathy, peripheral
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6/202. Acute axonal polyneuropathy in chronic alcoholism and malnutrition.

    In contrast to the classic, slowly progressive polyneuropathy in alcoholic patients, acute forms, clinically mimicking guillain-barre syndrome, are rare. We present a patient who developed motor weakness and sensory loss in all four limbs within four days. Laboratory data were consistent with long-term alcohol abuse and documented thiamine deficiency. Repeated cerebrospinal fluid examinations were normal. Electrophysiological studies showed an acute sensorimotor polyneuropathy with predominantly axonal involvement. We conclude that acute alcoholic neuropathy has to be distinguished from guillain-barre syndrome and other forms of acute polyneuropathy by using clinical, laboratory, and electrophysiological data. Both ethanol toxicity and vitamin deficiency could play a role in the pathogenesis.
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ranking = 1.4694854949776
keywords = neuropathy
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7/202. orphenadrine poisoning in a child: clinical and analytical data.

    orphenadrine is an anticholinergic drug used mainly in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. It has a peripheral and central effect and a known cardiotoxic effect when taken in large doses. We report the successful outcome of the treatment of a 2 1/2-year-old girl who accidentally ingested 400 mg of orphenadrine hydrochloride (Disipal). One hour after ingestion she presented neurological symptoms: confusion, ataxic walking, and periods of severe agitation. Generalized tonic-clonic seizures appeared resistant to the administration of multiple antiepileptics. They ceased after a supplementary dose of intravenous diazepam, endotracheal intubation, and mechanical ventilation. An episode of ventricular tachycardia responded well to i. v. lidocaine. physostigmine was administered in three successive doses. The initial orphenadrine plasma level (3,55 microg/ml) was in the toxic range, associated with high mortality. The calculated elimination half-life was 10.2 h and the molecule and/or its metabolites were found up to 90 h after ingestion.
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ranking = 0.11458924772906
keywords = peripheral
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8/202. Neurotologic follow-up after radiation of posterior fossa tumors.

    OBJECTIVE: Stereotactic radiation treatment, also known as gamma knife surgery or radiosurgery, has come into acceptance as a treatment alternative to surgical removal for posterior fossa tumors. The purpose of this article is to describe the role of the neurotologist in the optimal management of neurotologic complications after stereotactic radiation, as illustrated by five patients. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. patients: Five patients who underwent stereotactic radiation of posterior fossa tumors. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Presence or absence of neurotologic complications (tumor growth, hearing loss, imbalance/ataxia, vertigo, and facial paralysis) or neurosurgical complaints (facial numbness, motor weakness, headache, hydrocephalus, and subarachnoid cysts). RESULTS: Postradiation neurotologic complaints included vertigo, imbalance/ataxia, and progressive hearing loss in four of the five patients. Continued tumor growth occurred in two patients; two patients had no growth; in one patient the tumor became smaller. The complications of facial nerve paralysis, facial numbness, motor weakness, headache, hydrocephalus, cerebellar edema, and posterior fossa arachnoid cyst formation occurred less frequently. CONCLUSIONS: Stereotactic radiation of posterior fossa tumors can produce significant neurotologic problems. It is imperative that neurotologists remain involved in the follow-up care of patients with posterior fossa tumors to offer optimal treatment alternatives for the neurotologic disorders.
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ranking = 0.0052102530220551
keywords = nerve
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9/202. Conservative facial nerve management in jugular foramen schwannomas.

    OBJECTIVE: Although transposition of the facial nerve is crucial in infiltrative vascular lesions involving the jugular foramen, the objective was to show that a conservative approach to management of the facial nerve is sufficient with jugular foramen neuromas because of their noninfiltrative, less vascular nature and medial location in the jugular foramen. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case review. SETTING: Tertiary, private, multiphysician, otologic practice. patients: Sixteen patients with jugular foramen schwannoma (18 procedures) treated between January 1975 and October 1995. The 8 male and 8 female patients ranged in age from 13 to 66 years (mean age 47.7 years). INTERVENTION: One-stage, total jugular foramen neuroma removal without transposition of the facial nerve, using a variety of surgical approaches. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: facial nerve transposition (yes or no), House-Brackmann facial nerve grade, lower cranial nerve status, complications. RESULTS: One-stage total tumor removal was accomplished in all the cases. In 13 (72%) of the neuromas, removal was accomplished without facial nerve transposition. Transposition was performed in 2 revision cases in which scar tissue from a previous operation prevented complete control of the carotid artery and safe removal, 2 cases with large tumor extension anteriorly to the petrous apex, and 1 case with extensive involvement of the middle ear. A House-Brackmann facial nerve Grade I or II was obtained in 16 of the 18 procedures, with 1 Grade III and 1 case that remained Grade V, as it was preoperatively. CONCLUSIONS: One-stage, total tumor removal can be achieved with excellent control of the important vascular structures and without transposition of the facial nerve in a majority of jugular foramen schwannomas.
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ranking = 0.067733289286716
keywords = nerve
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10/202. Malignant pilocytic astrocytoma in the medulla oblongata: case report.

    A 27-year-old woman visited our hospital with chief complaints of abducens nerve palsy and cerebellar symptoms. On computerized tomographic scanning and magnetic resonance imaging, a tumor with strong enhancement was found on the dorsal side of the medulla oblongata. A tumor was excised by suboccipital craniotomy and C1 laminectomy. Histologically, many Rosenthal fibers together with pilocytic tumor cells were found in some regions, but a very high Ki-67 labeling rate accompanied by cells with nuclei of irregular size and giant cells was observed in other regions. The tumor was diagnosed as malignant pilocytic astrocytoma originating from pilocytic astrocytoma by transformation. The biological behavior of pilocytic astrocytoma is obscure in several respects. We report our experience of a case of malignant pilocytic astrocytoma that developed in the brain stem and progressed extremely rapidly.
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ranking = 0.0052102530220551
keywords = nerve
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