Cases reported "Athetosis"

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1/42. Familial paroxysmal dystonic choreoathetosis: clinical findings in a large Japanese family and genetic linkage to 2q.

    BACKGROUND: Paroxysmal dystonic choreoathetosis (PDC) is a rare familial movement disorder that has been mapped to chromosome 2q31-36. OBJECTIVE: To study the first Japanese family with PDC clinically and genetically. patients AND methods: We studied a large Japanese family in which at least 17 members in 6 generations have been affected by PDC. We interviewed and examined 26 family members, 8 of whom revealed choreoathetosis-like and dystonialike involuntary movement and 1 of whom revealed no involuntary movement but only muscle stiffness such as the aura of paroxysmal dystonic choreoathetosis (PDC). genetic linkage studies of this family were carried out with polymorphic dna markers. RESULTS: The attacks of involuntary movement or muscle stiffness were precipitated by ovulation, menstruation, emotional stress, or caffeine or alcohol ingestion. magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed no abnormalities. clonazepam therapy was effective for reducing the attacks, and ingestion of garlic was believed by patients to be effective for softening the attacks. An affected woman with only muscle stiffness showed remission after hysterectomy for hysteromyoma. This woman also had the disease haplotype and transferred it to her typical PDC-affected daughter. Maximal pairwise logarithm of odds scores exceeding 2.00 were obtained at D2S2250, D2S1242, D2S377, D2S2148, and D2S126. The PDC gene was demonstrated by linkage analyses to be located in a 15.3-centimorgan interval lying between D2S371 and D2S339 based on pairwise and multipoint logarithm of odds scores and obligate recombination events in affected individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Linkage of PDC to chromosome 2q32-36 was confirmed in a Japanese family. The clinical characterizations of this family with PDC include that ovulation seems also to be a precipitating factor of the attacks and that hysterectomy seems to be effective for softening the attacks. Although low-dose clonazepam treatment was most effective, garlic use was believed by affected members to be effective for softening the attacks. Furthermore, based on the results of clinical and genetic analyses, we suggest that muscle stiffness without involuntary movement may represent a forme fruste of PDC.
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ranking = 1
keywords = dystonia
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2/42. Syringomyelic dystonia and athetosis.

    Two patients with movement disorders associated with syringomyelia are described, one of whom developed unusual torticollis, and the other had choreoathetoid-dystonic movements of the hand and arm. In each case, the movements resolved with decompression of the syrinx. The literature is reviewed and possible mechanisms explored.
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ranking = 4
keywords = dystonia
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3/42. Paroxysmal dystonic choreoathetosis: clinical features and investigation of pathophysiology in a large family.

    Paroxysmal dystonic choreoathetosis (PDC) is an unusual hyperkinetic movement disorder characterized by attacks of chorea, dystonia, and ballism with onset in childhood. We report a large British family with dominantly inherited PDC linked to chromosome 2q and describe the clinical features in 20 affected family members. Attacks were precipitated by a variety of factors, including caffeine, alcohol, or emotion, and could be relieved by short periods of sleep in most subjects. The clinical features in the family are compared with those of 11 other PDC families in the literature and a core phenotype for PDC suggested. CSF monoamine metabolites measured at baseline and during an attack in one subject were found to increase during the attack. magnetic resonance spectroscopy of brain and basal ganglia performed both during and between attacks was normal. Positron emission tomography using the D2 receptor ligand, 11C-raclopride, showed no abnormalities.
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ranking = 1
keywords = dystonia
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4/42. Hemidystonia and hemichoreoathetosis as an initial manifestation of moyamoya disease.

    OBJECTIVE: To describe hemidystonia and hemichoreoathetosis in an adult patient with moyamoya disease without a previous history of cerebrovascular accident. DESIGN: Case report. SETTING: Tertiary care center. PATIENT: A 22-year-old woman suddenly developed dystonic spasms in her left hand and left foot after a severe emotional stress. The dyskinesia gradually subsided over the next 4 months. Five months after the onset, she suddenly developed choreoathetoid movement in her right hand and right foot. MAIN OUTCOME AND RESULTS: The patient had both somatic and cortical sensory deficits in the right hand and right foot. magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed an infarction at the right putamen and lesions involving the right frontal lobe and the left frontotemporoparietal lobe. Magnetic resonance cerebral angiography showed severe stenoses of both internal carotid arteries at the supraclinoid portion and numerous collateral vessels, compatible with moyamoya disease. Single photon emission tomography of the brain showed hypoperfused areas at the right frontal and left frontotemporoparietal lobes. The choreoathetosis of the right limbs improved markedly, along with improvement of sensory deficits. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first report of an adult patient presenting with hemidystonia and hemichoreoathetosis as the initial manifestations of moyamoya disease. Arch Neurol. 2000;57:1510-1512
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ranking = 9.3685395368627
keywords = dyskinesia, dystonia
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5/42. Co-segregation of benign infantile convulsions and paroxysmal kinesigenic choreoathetosis.

    We report seven families and two sporadic cases in which benign infantile convulsions and paroxysmal kinesigenic choreoathetosis were co-segregated. Clinical investigations included physical and neurological examinations, blood electrolyte values, interictal and ictal electroencephalograms, and computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. The family pedigree was confirmed and the clinical history of the relatives was obtained. Seventeen individuals developed infantile convulsions followed by paroxysmal dyskinesias during childhood or adolescence. Six had only infantile convulsions, and two had only paroxysmal dyskinesias. The seizures never persisted into childhood or recurred in adulthood. The seizure type was a complex partial seizure, with or without secondary generalization, in nine of 14 patients. Paroxysmal dyskinesias, a subgroup of paroxysmal kinesigenic choreoathetosis, occurred for less than 5 min. The attacks of dyskinesias began at age 5-12 years in most patients, and tended to remit in adulthood. The mode of inheritance was apparently autosomal dominant in four of the families (17 affected individuals), who were diagnosed with ICCA syndrome (infantile convulsions and paroxysmal choreoathetosis). However, the condition occurred only among siblings in three families (six patients), and sporadically in two patients, suggesting genetic heterogeneity in this distinct co-segregation.
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ranking = 13.474158147451
keywords = dyskinesia
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6/42. Infantile convulsions and paroxysmal kinesigenic choreoathetosis in a patient with idiopathic hypoparathyroidism.

    We reported a 15-year-old boy with idiopathic hypoparathyroidism who presented with paroxysmal kinesigenic choreoathetosis at age 10. calcium levels were low and intact parathyroid hormones were undetectable in serum. Computed tomography showed calcifications in the basal ganglia, thalamus, and cerebral white matter. He had a history of infantile convulsions with a benign outcome. The convulsions occurred in clusters at age 2.5 months, but they never recurred. This patient's clinical features were phenotypically indistinguishable from those of infantile convulsions and choreoathetosis (ICCA) syndrome
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ranking = 0.024280743505593
keywords = idiopathic
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7/42. Ictal (99m)Tc ECD SPECT in paroxysmal kinesigenic choreoathetosis.

    Paroxysmal kinesigenic choreoathetosis is a rare neurologic disorder characterized by sudden attacks of brief involuntary dyskinetic movement that are precipitated by voluntary movement. A 14-year-old male who presented with frequent brief attacks of hemidystonia triggered by sudden movement is reported. Investigations, including video electroencephalogram and magnetic resonance imaging of brain, were normal. There was excellent and sustained response to carbamazepine. Ictal single-photon emission computed tomography using (99m)Tc ethyl cysteinate dimer revealed increased perfusion of the contralateral basal ganglia, which is associated with onset of choreoathetosis attacks. Our findings provide evidence that hyperactivity of the basal ganglia is associated with the dyskinetic attacks in paroxysmal kinesigenic choreoathetosis.
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ranking = 1
keywords = dystonia
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8/42. Complex movement disorders following bilateral paramedian thalamic and bilateral cerebellar infarcts.

    Complex movement disorders (CMD; including tremor, dystonias, choreoatheosis, and myoclonus) following infarcts in the posterior and posterolateral thalamic nuclei have been reported. This case of a 59-year-old man who developed CMD following bilateral paramedian and bilateral cerebellar infarcts illustrates the lack of anatomic specificity and the diverse pathophysiology which may underlie CMD.
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ranking = 1
keywords = dystonia
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9/42. Co-occurrence of infantile epileptic seizures and childhood paroxysmal choreoathetosis in one family: clinical, EEG, and SPECT characterization of episodic events.

    The co-occurrence of infantile convulsions and childhood paroxysmal choreoathetosis (ICCA syndrome) has recently been reported in several families. The pattern of familial clustering observed is consistent with a single locus mutation which has been mapped onto the pericentromeric region of chromosome 16. We studied the main clinical, electroencephalogram (EEG), and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) characteristics of episodic events in a new family presenting clinical features similar to that described in the ICCA syndrome. In the first year of life, a mother and her two daughters suffered from rare afebrile seizures lasting from 30 seconds to 15 minutes. Ictal EEG recording in one daughter at 7 months of age showed bilateral polyspikes with a posterior predominance. In the three patients, epileptic seizures regressed within a few weeks, and never reoccurred. At the age of 7 and 12 years, respectively, the two daughters presented daily brief (20 seconds to 1 minute) involuntary choreoathetotic episodes. In 10 of these attacks, EEG did not show any epileptiform abnormalities. In both sisters, an ictal SPECT was performed during a choreoathetotic episode. Subtracting the ictal SPECT from the interictal SPECT coregistered to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed significant modifications in the local cerebral perfusion in the sensorimotor cortex, the supplementary motor areas, and pallidum. carbamazepine completely suppressed paroxysmal dyskinesias. These observations, together with literature data, suggest that in this syndrome, depending on brain maturation, the same genetic abnormality may result in different paroxysmal neurological symptoms.
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ranking = 3.3685395368628
keywords = dyskinesia
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10/42. dystonia, athetosis, and epilepsia partialis continua in a patient with late-onset Rasmussen's encephalitis.

    Rasmussen's encephalitis is a rare autoimmune disorder characterized by intractable epilepsy and progressive hemispheric dysfunction. The disorder usually affects children, although cases have been reported with symptom onset in late adolescence or adulthood. myoclonus is common in Rasmussen patients, usually occurring as part of epilepsia partialis continua (EPC); however, other hyperkinetic movements are rare. This report documents a 19-year-old woman with Rasmussen's encephalitis whose clinical presentation was dominated by foot dystonia, arm athetosis, and EPC. Intravenous immunoglobulin improved both hyperkinetic movements and EPC, but benefit was transient. The clinical significance and implications of these findings are discussed.
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ranking = 1
keywords = dystonia
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