Cases reported "Atrial Fibrillation"

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1/89. Right posterior atrioventricular ring: a location for different types of atrioventricular accessory connections.

    We present an unusual case of a 28-year-old female patient with recurrent episodes of tachycardias due to participation of two accessory connections located in the posterior tricuspid annulus. Both connections were of the atrioventricular type, the one with non decremental fast conducting properties at the right posteroseptal area, the other with node-like properties at the posterolateral tricuspid ring. Both pathways were successfully ablated transvenously with radiofrequency energy application at the same session. Implications about a common embryological origin of the two pathways as well as review of the literature for similar cases are presented.
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2/89. Implantable atrial defibrillator and detection of atrial flutter.

    The implantable atrial defibrillator (IAD) is designed to detect and treat atrial fibrillation (AF) with low energy synchronized shocks. A patient with a history of persistent AF was implanted with an IAD after ineffective treatment with procainamide and sotalol. Through four months of follow-up, the IAD performed appropriate detection and treatment of AF. During the fifth month, the patient was put on flecainide in an attempt to minimize the AF recurrence rate. On flecainide the patient experienced typical atrial flutter which required IAD reprogramming for appropriate detection and therapy delivery. This case report examines the optimization of the IAD to detect atrial flutter. Six months of follow-up after optimization the IAD has shown appropriate detection of both atrial flutter and AF. During the entire follow-up period the IAD had appropriate detection of sinus rhythm (no false positive detection, i.e. sinus rhythm as AF).
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3/89. Transient appearance of antegrade conduction via an AV accessory pathway caused by atrial fibrillation in a patient with intermittent wolff-parkinson-white syndrome.

    A 55 year old man with intermittent Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome had an episode of atrial fibrillation (AF) that lasted for 117 days. After interruption of the AF a Delta wave appeared that lasted for two days and then disappeared. exercise stress and isoprenaline infusion could not reproduce the Delta wave, but after another episode of AF which lasted for seven days a persistent Delta wave appeared that lasted for six hours. In an electrophysiological study performed on a day without a Delta wave, neither antegrade nor retrograde conduction via an accessory pathway was seen, but after atrial burst pacing (at 250 ms cycle length) for 10 minutes, a Delta wave appeared lasting for 16 seconds. Atrial electrical remodelling-that is, the shortening of the atrial effective refractory period caused by AF, is a possible mechanism of the appearance of the Delta wave.
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4/89. Evidence for specialized atrioventricular conduction in hyperkalemia.

    A patient who had chronic coarse atrial fibrillation developed severe hyperkalemia accompanied by total loss of fibrillatory waves while an irregularly irregular ventricular rhythm persisted. Correction of hyperkalemia resulted in prompt return of coarse atrial fibrillation. This sequence of events renders strong support to direct atrioventricular conduction through the specialized internodal tracts.
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5/89. Case report: pulmonary vein stenosis following RF ablation of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation: successful treatment with balloon dilation.

    Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and atrial tachycardia may originate from a focal source in one or multiple pulmonary veins. A focal origin facilitates a potential cure amendable to radiofrequency ablation. Herein we report the case of a 16 year old adolescent male with a tachycardia induced cardiomyopathy who presented with very frequent paroxysmal episodes of atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter and atrial tachycardia. The origin of the arrhythmia was mapped to the secondary branches of the left lower pulmonary vein using an octapolar micro-mapping catheter. Immediately following application of three radiofrequency lesions, angiography of the left lower pulmonary vein revealed a region of focal stenosis at the site of energy application, with delayed pulmonary venous emptying. Attempts to relieve any element of spasm using direct administration of nitroglycerin were unsuccessful. Three months later repeat catheterization revealed an unchanged region of tight anatomical stenosis. Balloon dilation of two stenotic areas resulted in dramatic relief of the obstruction and improved venous drainage. Recatheterization 6 months later revealed mild restenosis that was successfully redilated. Intracardiac ultrasound demonstrated focal constriction. Care should be exercised in attempting RF ablation in distal arborization sites of the pulmonary veins in children, because of the small caliber compared to adult subjects. Radiofrequency induced focal areas of stenosis may be amenable to balloon catheter dilation.
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6/89. Giant negative T waves during interferon therapy in a patient with chronic hepatitis c.

    interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) has been widely used for treatment of chronic hepatitis c in japan. In general, cardiovascular adverse reactions are rare in association with IFN-alpha therapy. Here, a 64-year-old man with chronic active hepatitis c complained of fatigue, palpitation and depression, and developed atrial fibrillation with prominent negative T waves during IFN-alpha therapy. Echocardiogram showed septal and apical hypertrophy. Three days after discontinuation of IFN-alpha, subjective symptoms and atrial fibrillation subsided. It is unclear whether or not IFN-alpha induced the giant negative T waves with apical hypertrophy. We might observe the developing course of hepatitis c virus (HCV)-related myocardial hypertrophy by chance. Cardiovascular toxicity should be carefully monitored during IFN-alpha therapy even in patients with minor cardiac disease, such as premature ventricular contracture (PVC) and mild hypertension.
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7/89. Dual AV nodal pathway physiology after injury with radiofrequency energy in a patient without a history of reentrant tachycardia.

    Radiofrequency (RF) atrioventricular (AV) nodal modification has been reported to occasionally produce a proarrhythmic effect. Dual AV nodal pathway physiology in patients without reentrant tachychardia has also been reported. This case describes AV nodal modification with RF energy in an anatomically intermediate area resulting in the appearance of discontinuous antegrade conduction curves and reentry in a patient in which these were previously not present. This suggests that AV nodal injury may be a mechanism for acquired AV nodal reentry.
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8/89. Atypical left atrial flutter after intraoperative radiofrequency ablation of chronic atrial fibrillation: successful ablation using three-dimensional electroanatomic mapping.

    Curative treatment of chronic atrial fibrillation (AF) remains a challenging task for electrophysiologists. Eliminating the initiating triggers by focal radiofrequency ablation in a subset of patients with paroxysmal AF and modifying the maintaining substrate by performing linear lesions within the left atrium in patients with prolonged episodes of AF are among the alternative approaches for management of these patients. Recently, a new intraoperative treatment procedure aimed at eliminating left atrial anatomic "anchor" reentrant circuits by induction of contiguous lesions using radiofrequency energy under direct vision was introduced. However, atypical left atrial flutter may occur during follow-up after intraoperative ablation of AF. These arrhythmias most likely are due to discontinuities in linear lesions; therefore, they can be successfully mapped and ablated in a subsequent percutaneous catheter ablation procedure. We report and discuss the case of a patient who underwent successful intraoperative ablation of chronic AF, but who developed atypical left atrial flutter postoperatively. Three-dimensional nonfluoroscopic electroanatomic mapping revealed a gap in the linear lesion line connecting the left upper and right upper pulmonary vein orifices. Ablation at the exit site of the breakthrough was successful.
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9/89. Relation between the rapid focal activation in the pulmonary vein and the maintenance of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation.

    This case report describes a patient with drug refractory paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF). Rapid focal activations with multiple sharp spikes were continuously identified inside the left superior pulmonary vein (PV) during sustained AF. Among seven episodes of AF, cessation of rapid focal activations coincided with the conversion of AF to flutter (n = 4) or immediate AF termination (n = 3). Guided by sharp spikes in the PV, abrupt termination of AF occurred during radiofrequency energy application. Conclusively, rapid focal activations inside the PV are critical in AF maintenance. Cessation of these rapid focal activations underlies the mechanism by which AF converts to flutter.
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10/89. Differential atrial stunning after electrical cardioversion: an echo tissue Doppler case study.

    Left atrial stunning after cardioversion is a well-known phenomenon. It has been associated with higher risk of postcardioversion thromboemboli and increased risk of recurrence of atrial fibrillation. We present a case of differential atrial stunning after electrical cardioversion for atrial fibrillation. diagnosis was made by pulsed wave Doppler of mitral, tricuspid, and pulmonary vein inflow and mitral and tricuspid annuli. Differential mechanical atrial stunning may be a common phenomenon after cardioversion and may suggest difference in right and left atrial transport function. Its prevalence needs to be determined by a large study. Doppler tissue imaging might be routinely used in patients after cardioversion for atrial fibrillation to detect atrial stunning.
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