Cases reported "Atrial Flutter"

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1/66. Radiofrequency catheter ablation of atrial flutter after orthotopic heart transplantation: insights into the redefined critical isthmus.

    We report a case of successful radiofrequency catheter ablation of recurrent atrial flutter in a heart transplant recipient and discuss technical aspects of the procedure. A counterclockwise flutter circuit was defined during endocardial mapping of the donor atrium. Termination of atrial flutter was achieved by creating lines of radiofrequency lesions from the tricuspid ring to the suture line between donor and recipient atria. Creation of bidirectional conduction block in the tricuspid ring-suture line isthmus resulted in abolition of atrial flutter.
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2/66. Simultaneous surgical treatment of atrial septal defect and atrial flutter using a simple modification of the atrial incision.

    The reentrant circuit of common atrial flutter is known to be located in the right atrium between two anatomical barriers. Recent electrophysiologic studies have defined the tricuspid annulus as the anterior barrier, and the terminal crest and its continuation as the eustachian ridge as the posterior barrier. Construction of a bidirectional block to conduction between these two barriers by means of lesions created with radiofrequency current have been shown to be effective in ablating the flutter. We now find that surgical creation of such a block to conduction between the barriers by a simple modification of the atrial incision line is equally effective. In a 6-year-old boy, who was admitted to our hospital for closure of an atrial septal defect and treatment of sustained atrial flutter, the atriotomy was performed perpendicular to the terminal groove and extended towards the tricuspid annulus, placing some cryothermal lesions between the end of the incision and the annulus. The septal defect was closed using a Dacron patch. The child was free of arrhythmia both during the postoperative stay and over the initial three months of follow-up. We conclude that this simple modification of the atrial incision line provides cure of atrial flutter in children who require atriotomy for repair of congenital cardiac anomalies. It may also be beneficial in preventing 'incisional' reentrant tachycardia.
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3/66. Human histopathologic findings following radiofrequency ablation of the tricuspid-inferior vena cava isthmus.

    Radiofrequency (RF) ablation of the tricuspid valve-inferior vena cava isthmus is now the first line of treatment in the management of typical atrial flutter. Successful ablation is associated with conduction block in this region, although the histopathologic changes following this procedure have never been reported. We describe the pathologic changes following RF ablation of this region in an explanted heart of a patient undergoing heart transplantation 4 months after successful atrial flutter ablation. The findings confirm the ability of RF ablation to create in the isthmus a chronic full thickness fibrosis, which represents the histopathologic counterpart of the conduction block demonstrated at the end of procedure.
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4/66. Radiofrequency catheter ablation of common atrial flutter: role of the eustachian valve.

    INTRODUCTION: During radiofrequency catheter ablation of a common atrial flutter between the tricuspid annulus and the Eustachian valve "septal isthmus", double potentials were recorded along the Eustachian valve, previously described as an anatomical line of conduction block between the coronary sinus ostium and the inferior vena cava. RESULTS: Just before flutter termination, lengthening and beat to beat delay variations between the 2 components of the double potentials were correlated with simultaneous modifications of the flutter cycle length. CONCLUSION: The "septal isthmus" is a common pathway for the flutter wavefront and the impulse generating the second component of the double potential. It is also a good target for flutter ablation.
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5/66. tachycardia-dependent right bundle-branch block with supernormal conduction.

    This paper reports the case of a 76-year-old man in whom atrial flutter with varying atrioventricular block and intermittent right bundle-branch block was found. This is the first report on tachycardia-dependent right bundle-branch block associated with supernormal conduction in a case of atrial flutter. When an impulse is conducted to the ventricles beyond 0.72 s after a QRS complex of right bundle-branch block configuration, the impulse falls after the abnormally long effective refractor period of the right bundle branch and passes through the right bundle branch. When the conducted impulse occurs within 0.72 s after a QRS complex of right bundle-branch block configuration, the impulse usually falls in the refractory period and is blocked in the right bundle branch; however, only when the impulse occurs 0.48 or 0.49 s after that does it fall in the supernormal period and passes through the right bundle branch. The findings in the present report strengthen our previous suggestion that the presence of supernormal conduction plays an important role in the initiation of reentrant ventricular tachycardia.
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6/66. Atrial tachycardia masquerading as atrial flutter following ablation of the subeustachian isthmus.

    We report a case of atrial tachycardia masquerading as atrial flutter in a man who had previously undergone catheter ablation for atrial flutter. The recurrent arrhythmia was electrocardiographically almost identical to the prior atrial flutter; at repeat electrophysiologic study, although bidirectional conduction block was observed in the tricuspid annulus-inferior vena caval isthmus, the atrial arrhythmia was readily initiated. Activation mapping suggested typical atrial flutter, but entrainment techniques demonstrated intra-atrial reentry not involving the ablated isthmus. This case illustrates the need to apply entrainment techniques even in cases of apparent "typical" atrial flutter to confirm that putative ablation targets are necessary for tachycardia perpetuation.
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7/66. atrial flutter in the recipient atrium induced by premature beats arising from the donor atrium 10 years after orthotopic heart transplantation.

    BACKGROUND: Several mechanisms for the genesis of supraventricular arrhythmias in patients after orthotopic heart transplantation have been reported. methods AND RESULTS: We describe a 58-year-old male patient in whom atrial flutter occurred 10 years after orthotopic heart transplantation. During an electrophysiological study, bidirectional conduction between the recipient and donor atria was found. atrial flutter in the recipient atrium was induced by programmed stimulation of the donor atrium using a single extrastimulus. The clinical symptoms were caused by atrial flutter arising from the recipient atrium with 1:1 to 3:1 conduction to the donor atrium. Mapping the anastomosis between the two atria indicated fragmented potentials at a discrete site of conduction. Delivery of radiofrequency energy at this site terminated conduction in both directions. Subsequent atrial pacing of the donor and recipient atria, respectively, demonstrated bidirectional conduction block. CONCLUSION: Symptomatic arrhythmias in patients after heart transplantation can indirectly originate from the donor atrium via bidirectional recipient-donor atrial conduction. This type of arrhythmia can be successfully treated with radiofrequency ablation.
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8/66. syncope in patients with atrial flutter during treatment with class Ic antiarrhythmic drugs.

    We describe 2 atrial flutter (AFL) patients with syncope during treatment with class Ic antiarrhythmic drugs. During the syncope, 1:1 atrioventricular (AV) conduction during AFL preceded a wide QRS tachycardia. The class Ic drugs, flecainide and pilsicainide, slowed the atrial rate, resulting in AFL with 1:1 AV conduction, and the width of the QRS complexes became wider during the tachycardia. syncope was abolished after successful radiofrequency catheter ablation of the AFL. These potential proarrhythmic effects of the class Ic drugs should be taken into account in AFL patients, and concomitant use of beta-blocking agents would be critical to prevent proarrhythmias.
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9/66. Reentry circuit location and left atrial three-dimensional activation patterns in left atrial flutter.

    We report the case of a patient with left atrial flutter (LAF) in whom the reentry circuit location was mapped with a 64-electrode basket catheter deployed in the left atrium. Left atrial three-dimensional activation patterns were constructed with a software program and presented as color-coded isochrones. The reentrant activation traveled preferentially around the mitral annulus in a clockwise direction. It consisted of a single reentry confined anteriorly by the mitral annulus and posteriorly by an anatomic-functional barrier composed of a functional conduction block extending between pulmonary veins and surrounding a part of the posterior wall of the left atrium. The lower portion of the posterior wall and the anterior wall in close proximity to mitral annulus were preferentially used by the reentrant impulse.
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10/66. Case report: severe skin burn at the site of the indifferent electrode after radiofrequency catheter ablation of typical atrial flutter.

    Although radiofrequency (RF) catheter ablation has been shown to be an effective treatment strategy in patients with supraventricular tachycardia, RF ablation may lead to potentially serious complications. We describe a case of a 65-year old man who was transferred for catheter ablation of typical atrial flutter. 21 RF applications (mean energy: 81 /-9 watts) were applied in the temperature-controlled mode (70 degrees C) between a 8-mm tip electrode and an indifferent electrode using a high-power RF generator (100 watts) until bi-directional atrial isthmus block was achieved. After the procedure, a third-degree skin burn (10x2 cm) was observed at the lateral edge of the adhesive indifferent electrode whereas the medial edge of the electrode was not fully attached to the skin surface. This case is one out of 1128 ablation procedures (0.09 %) at our institution using a high-power RF generator. The present study demonstrates a severe skin burn induced by mal-attachment of an indifferent electrode during RF ablation. Long RF energy application times, high-power settings, and heavy sedation may have contributed to the observed severity of skin damage.
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