Cases reported "Atrial Flutter"

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1/34. Radiofrequency catheter ablation of common atrial flutter: role of the eustachian valve.

    INTRODUCTION: During radiofrequency catheter ablation of a common atrial flutter between the tricuspid annulus and the Eustachian valve "septal isthmus", double potentials were recorded along the Eustachian valve, previously described as an anatomical line of conduction block between the coronary sinus ostium and the inferior vena cava. RESULTS: Just before flutter termination, lengthening and beat to beat delay variations between the 2 components of the double potentials were correlated with simultaneous modifications of the flutter cycle length. CONCLUSION: The "septal isthmus" is a common pathway for the flutter wavefront and the impulse generating the second component of the double potential. It is also a good target for flutter ablation.
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2/34. Microwave ablation of atrial flutter.

    Radiofrequency (RF) ablation of the isthmus between the inferior vena cava and the tricuspid ring has proven to be a safe and successful method of treating atrial flutter (AF). However, RF ablation lesions are small in size requiring a considerable number of energy applications to ablate the AF circuit. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of microwave energy for AF ablation. We report a case of sustained typical AF treated successfully and safely by 1 pulse of microwave (MW) energy. This showed it is possible to treat AF with a small number of pulse applications.
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3/34. ICD hardware failure associated with multiple internal shocks.

    The delivery of 37 shocks by an ICD within 20 minutes, in response to T wave oversensing during atrial flutter, resulted in several manifestations of undesirable device behavior. The generator reverted to backup mode, and disabled automatic capacitor reformation, therapy delivery, and automatic gain control. Postexplant analysis of the device revealed damage to the high voltage output section of the circuitry consistent with excessive electrical stress. In rare circumstances, multiple internal discharges can result in serious clinical anomalies in ICD behavior, and possibly in an increase in susceptibility to circuitry damage.
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4/34. Polycardiographic study of atrial flutter.

    The modifications that atrial flutter determines on the phonocardiogram, apexcardiogram, carotid pulse tracing, jugular venous pulse tracing, and indirect (esophageal) left atrial pulse tracing were studied. On the basis of the data here presented and that of the literature, a polygraphic profile of atrial flutter has been constructed as follows: notable variability of the intensity and of the richness of the vibratory components of the first and second heart sound; regularly alternating intervals between successive atrial sounds, each one of which consists of two groups of vibrations; deformations of all mechanographic tracings corresponding with "F" waves of the ECG. The interpretation of various polygraphic reports contributes to the understanding of the physiopathogenesis of atrial flutter.
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5/34. A peculiar form of focal atrial tachycardia mimicking atypical atrial flutter.

    A 55-year-old man was referred because of congestive heart failure and atrial flutter. A 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) showed positive P waves in leads II, III, and aVF with a continuously undulating pattern that lacked an isoelectric baseline. tachycardia was diagnosed as atypical atrial flutter based on classical criteria. An electrophysiological study and catheter ablation using an electroanatomical system revealed the mechanism of the tachycardia to be focal atrial tachycardia originating from the left atrial roof. This case indicates that focal atrial tachycardia may present as atypical atrial flutter on the surface ECG.
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6/34. Differential atrial stunning after electrical cardioversion: an echo tissue Doppler case study.

    Left atrial stunning after cardioversion is a well-known phenomenon. It has been associated with higher risk of postcardioversion thromboemboli and increased risk of recurrence of atrial fibrillation. We present a case of differential atrial stunning after electrical cardioversion for atrial fibrillation. diagnosis was made by pulsed wave Doppler of mitral, tricuspid, and pulmonary vein inflow and mitral and tricuspid annuli. Differential mechanical atrial stunning may be a common phenomenon after cardioversion and may suggest difference in right and left atrial transport function. Its prevalence needs to be determined by a large study. Doppler tissue imaging might be routinely used in patients after cardioversion for atrial fibrillation to detect atrial stunning.
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7/34. Characterization of the anatomy and conduction velocities of the human right atrial flutter circuit determined by noncontact mapping.

    OBJECTIVES: This study was done to characterize human right atrial (RA) flutter (AFL) using noncontact mapping. BACKGROUND: atrial flutter has been mapped using sequential techniques, but complex anatomy makes simultaneous global RA mapping difficult. methods: Noncontact mapping was used to map the RA of 13 patients with AFL (5 with previous attempts), 11 with counterclockwise and 2 with clockwise AFL. "Reconstructed" electrograms were validated against contact electrograms using cross-correlation. The Cartesian coordinates of points on a virtual endocardium were used to calculate the length and thus the conduction velocity (CV) of the AFL wave front within the tricuspid annulus-inferior vena cave isthmus (IS) and either side of the crista terminalis (CT). RESULTS: When clearly seen, the AFL wave front split (n = 3) or turned in the region of the coronary sinus os (n = 6). Activation progressed toward the tricuspid annulus (TA) from the surrounding RA in 10 patients, suggesting that the leading edge of the reentry wave front is not always at the TA. The IS length and CV was 47.73 /- 24.40 mm (mean /- SD) and 0.74 /- 0.36 m/s. The CV was similar for the smooth and trabeculated RA (1.16 /- 0.48 m/s and 1.22 /- 0.65 m/s, respectively [p = 0.67]) and faster than the IS (p = 0.03 and p = 0.05 for smooth and trabeculated, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Noncontact mapping of AFL has been validated and has demonstrated that IS CV is significantly slower than either side of the CT.
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8/34. Fetal atrial flutter recorded prenatally by magnetocardiography.

    A case of fetal atrial flutter successfully recorded by magnetocardiography (MCG) is reported. Initial ultrasonography revealed frequent fetal atrial extrasystoles at 31 weeks of gestation. Fetal MCG was recorded using a multichannel MCG system at 31, 35 and 38 weeks of gestation. A series of fluctuations in the baseline of the MCG were noted at 35 and 38 weeks of gestation, which were revealed to be atrial flutter P waves. The averaged MCG showed that the fetal arrhythmia was an atrial flutter with a 3:1 atrioventricular block. The diagnosis was confirmed by neonatal electrocardiogram. Fetal MCG may be useful for the diagnosis of fetal atrial flutter.
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9/34. Bystander cavo-tricuspid isthmus activation during post-incisional intra-atrial reentrant tachycardia.

    We describe a case of post-incisional atrial tachycardia resembling typical atrial flutter on the surface ECG. Typical atrial flutter reentry was ruled out by the results of activation and entrainment mapping. Nevertheless, overdrive pacing from the lateral edge of the cavo-tricuspid isthmus produced tachycardia entrainment with concealed fusion associated with post-pacing and stimulus-to-P wave onset intervals exactly matching the tachycardia cycle length duration and the electrogram-to-P wave onset interval, respectively. Therefore, that site was firstly severed by sequential radiofrequency pulses. However, a transformation of the tachycardia P wave morphology and endocardial activation sequence, not associated with tachycardia termination or cycle length modification occurred. After additional mapping manoeuvres, a relatively small reentrant circuit was identified in the low and mid aspect of the lateral right atrium with the critical isthmus located between the lower border of a cannulation atriotomy and the crista terminalis, close to the inferior vena cava orifice. A single radiofrequency pulse at that site terminated the tachycardia. Both the electrocardiographic pattern and the endocardial mapping data obtained in our case might be explained by a split of the reentrant wavefront into a secondary wavelet which freely propagated through the cavo-tricuspid isthmus without completing the peritricuspid loop. In conclusion, bystander cavo-tricuspid isthmus activation during atrial tachycardia may simulate a typical atrial flutter pattern on the surface ECG. Further studies should evaluate the prevalence of this propagation pattern in post-incisional atrial reentry and atypical atrial flutters, and identify its implications for ablation strategy.
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10/34. Cardiac involvement in the Kugelbert-Welander syndrome.

    Two cases of the Kugelberg-Welander syndrome (juvenile form of progressive spinal muscular atrophy) associated with cardiomyopathy and cardiomegaly are presented. The first patient, a 24 year old man, had atrial flutter with complete atrioventricular (A-V) block due to A-H block. echocardiography revealed an increase in the left atrial and right ventricular dimensions. The second patient was a 26 year old man whose electrocardiogram revealed an A-V junctional rhythm, deep Q wave in leads I, aVL and V5 to V6 and an RS pattern in lead V1. Histologic examination of the myocardium in Case 2 showed slight interstitial fibrosis. review of previously reported cases shows that (1) the atrium, the ventricular myocardium and A-V conducting tissue may be involved, and (2) atrial arrhythmias, A-V conduction disturbances and congestive heart failure may occur in the Kugelberg-Welander syndrome.
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