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1/4. Giant negative T waves during interferon therapy in a patient with chronic hepatitis c.

    interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) has been widely used for treatment of chronic hepatitis c in japan. In general, cardiovascular adverse reactions are rare in association with IFN-alpha therapy. Here, a 64-year-old man with chronic active hepatitis c complained of fatigue, palpitation and depression, and developed atrial fibrillation with prominent negative T waves during IFN-alpha therapy. Echocardiogram showed septal and apical hypertrophy. Three days after discontinuation of IFN-alpha, subjective symptoms and atrial fibrillation subsided. It is unclear whether or not IFN-alpha induced the giant negative T waves with apical hypertrophy. We might observe the developing course of hepatitis c virus (HCV)-related myocardial hypertrophy by chance. Cardiovascular toxicity should be carefully monitored during IFN-alpha therapy even in patients with minor cardiac disease, such as premature ventricular contracture (PVC) and mild hypertension.
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2/4. Spontaneous interpolated atrial premature complex detected by 12-lead ambulatory monitoring.

    Spontaneous occurrence of an interpolated atrial premature complex, an unusual finding outside of the experimental electrophysiology laboratory, was detected and confirmed by evaluation of P-wave morphology in a patient who underwent 12-lead ambulatory electrocardiography.
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3/4. Total pulmonary vein occlusion as a consequence of catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation mimicking primary lung disease.

    INTRODUCTION: catheter ablation has recently been used for curative treatment of atrial fibrillation. methods AND RESULTS: Three of 239 patients who underwent ablation close to the pulmonary vein (PV) ostia at our institute developed severe hemoptysis, dyspnea, and pneumonia as early as 1 week and as late as 6 months after the ablation. Because the patients were arrhythmia-free, the treating physician initially attributed the symptoms to new-onset pulmonary disease (e.g., bronchopulmonary neoplasm). After absent PV flow was confirmed by transesophageal echocardiography, transseptal contrast injection depicted a totally occluded PV in all three patients. Successful recanalization, even in chronically occluded Pvs, was performed in all patients. During follow-up, Doppler flow measurements by transesophageal echocardiography demonstrated restenosis in all primarily dilated PV, which led to stent implantation. CONCLUSION: PV stenosis/occlusion after catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation occurs in a subset of patients. However, because in-stent restenosis occurred in two patients after 6 to 10 weeks, final interventional strategy for PV stenosis or occlusion remains unclear. To prevent future PV stenosis or occlusion, a decrease in target temperature and energy of radiofrequency current or the use of new energy sources (ultrasound, cryothermia, microwave) seems necessary.
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4/4. Pseudosinus tachycardias originating from left pulmonary veins.

    The case of a 55-year-old man with LV dysfunction in whom the baseline cardiac rhythm falsely mimicked a sinus rhythm (SR) but actually originated from the left superior and inferior pulmonary vein (PV) is reported. The P waves before ablation were flat in leads I and V1, negative in lead aVL, and positive in leads II, III, aVF. After the left superior PV was isolated from the left atrium, another ectopic rhythm newly appeared from the left inferior PV. Interestingly, the LV systolic function improved after the resumption of the SR, thus suggesting that tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy might be involved in the mechanism of LV systolic disturbance.
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