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1/16. Failure of right atrial premature beats to reset atriofascicular tachycardia.

    A patient with a right atriofascicular (Mahaim) tachycardia was found to have inducible antidromic supraventricular tachycardia, but atrial premature beats from the right atrial free wall failed to reset the tachycardia. An interesting transition from AV nodal reentry tachycardia to Mahaim tachycardia is also presented. ( info)

2/16. The role of atrial electrical remodeling in the progression of focal atrial ectopy to persistent atrial fibrillation.

    Although atrial fibrillation- (AF) induced changes in atrial refractoriness (atrial electrical remodeling) have been demonstrated in a number of different animal models, the clinical significance of this process is unknown. We describe a patient in whom there has been documented progression of atrial ectopy to persistent AF accompanied by evidence of atrial electrical remodeling, with reversal of remodeling following successful ablation of the focal source of AF. A second patient with focal AF, but with a "nonfocal" appearance on the ECG, is also described. These cases illustrate: (1) the possibility that a significant proportion of younger patients with idiopathic persistent AF may well have a focal source as the underlying abnormality; and (2) atrial electrical remodeling reverses following ablation of the underlying source. ( info)

3/16. Familial association of congenital left heart abnormalities and sustained fetal arrhythmia.

    hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is the most common cause of death from heart disease in the first week of life. There are reports about familial concordance by presumed morphogenetic mechanisms of abnormal embryonic blood flow with phenotypes of varying severity. The risk of having a child with a left heart lesion after a previously affected child may be as high as 5% to 12%. We present case reports from four families in which sustained fetal arrhythmia (three ectopic atrial tachycardias and one severe bradycardia due to excessive ectopic atrial beats) was demonstrated. Within these four families a close relative of the mother (a previous child, a brother, or a nephew) had severe left heart abnormality (three with HLHS and one with severe aortic valve stenosis). The association of sustained fetal arrhythmia of ectopic atrial origin and severe left heart abnormalities could be expected to occur by chance in a very low percentage of cases. We conclude that sustained fetal atrial ectopic arrhythmia is a congenital abnormality and should be considered as a risk factor for inherited congenital heart abnormalities. ( info)

4/16. exercise-induced uncommon atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia with sick sinus syndrome: a case report.

    exercise seldom provokes tachycardia in patients with paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT). This report presents a case of exercise-induced uncommon atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) with sick sinus syndrome. Treadmill exercise testing provoked AVNRT of long RP' with good reproducibility. Uncommon AVNRT was confirmed by the lack of atrial pre-excitation during PSVT and para-Hisian pacing. The patient has been successfully treated with verapamil and DDD pacing for 5 years. ( info)

5/16. Exit block of focal repetitive activity in the superior vena cava masquerading as a high right atrial tachycardia.

    An unusual case of atrial tachycardia (AT) originating from the superior vena cava (SVC) is reported. A 34-year-old man without structural heart disease underwent catheter ablation for drug-resistant AT. During the tachycardia, low-amplitude spiky electrograms with a cycle length of 120 to 175 msec were recorded in the SVC and exhibited 2:1 exit block to the atria, masquerading as the atrial activation observed with high right AT. These spiky electrograms also were observed during sinus rhythm, but they appeared immediately after the local atrial electrograms. The spikes were traced to a point 3 cm above the junction of the right atrium. Radiofrequency ablation at the site of the earliest appearance of the spike in the SVC successfully eliminated the tachycardia. During the following 15 months, no clinically significant atrial arrhythmias, including atrial fibrillation, occurred. This report indicates that careful mapping, including inside the SVC, will be a requisite in patients with high right atrial tachyarrhythmias. ( info)

6/16. Giant negative T waves during interferon therapy in a patient with chronic hepatitis c.

    interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) has been widely used for treatment of chronic hepatitis c in japan. In general, cardiovascular adverse reactions are rare in association with IFN-alpha therapy. Here, a 64-year-old man with chronic active hepatitis c complained of fatigue, palpitation and depression, and developed atrial fibrillation with prominent negative T waves during IFN-alpha therapy. Echocardiogram showed septal and apical hypertrophy. Three days after discontinuation of IFN-alpha, subjective symptoms and atrial fibrillation subsided. It is unclear whether or not IFN-alpha induced the giant negative T waves with apical hypertrophy. We might observe the developing course of hepatitis c virus (HCV)-related myocardial hypertrophy by chance. Cardiovascular toxicity should be carefully monitored during IFN-alpha therapy even in patients with minor cardiac disease, such as premature ventricular contracture (PVC) and mild hypertension. ( info)

7/16. Spontaneous interpolated atrial premature complex detected by 12-lead ambulatory monitoring.

    Spontaneous occurrence of an interpolated atrial premature complex, an unusual finding outside of the experimental electrophysiology laboratory, was detected and confirmed by evaluation of P-wave morphology in a patient who underwent 12-lead ambulatory electrocardiography. ( info)

8/16. Fetal bradycardia in the first trimester: an unusual presentation of atrial extrasystoles.

    We report a fetus with fetal bradycardia at 13 weeks of gestation secondary to atrial extrasystoles. The fetus subsequently developed paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia and hydrops fetalis. The cardiac arrhythmia recovered spontaneously without any medical intervention. This case illustrates that atrial ectopic beats can present in the first trimester with fetal bradycardia. Rapidly evolving hydrops fetalis secondary to supraventricular tachycardia can develop, warranting close monitoring with weekly heart rate assessment. Fetal bradycardia secondary to atrial extrasystole should be differentiated from first trimester sinus bradycardia and those associated with major structural cardiac abnormality, which have a high fetal loss rate. ( info)

9/16. Total pulmonary vein occlusion as a consequence of catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation mimicking primary lung disease.

    INTRODUCTION: catheter ablation has recently been used for curative treatment of atrial fibrillation. methods AND RESULTS: Three of 239 patients who underwent ablation close to the pulmonary vein (PV) ostia at our institute developed severe hemoptysis, dyspnea, and pneumonia as early as 1 week and as late as 6 months after the ablation. Because the patients were arrhythmia-free, the treating physician initially attributed the symptoms to new-onset pulmonary disease (e.g., bronchopulmonary neoplasm). After absent PV flow was confirmed by transesophageal echocardiography, transseptal contrast injection depicted a totally occluded PV in all three patients. Successful recanalization, even in chronically occluded Pvs, was performed in all patients. During follow-up, Doppler flow measurements by transesophageal echocardiography demonstrated restenosis in all primarily dilated PV, which led to stent implantation. CONCLUSION: PV stenosis/occlusion after catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation occurs in a subset of patients. However, because in-stent restenosis occurred in two patients after 6 to 10 weeks, final interventional strategy for PV stenosis or occlusion remains unclear. To prevent future PV stenosis or occlusion, a decrease in target temperature and energy of radiofrequency current or the use of new energy sources (ultrasound, cryothermia, microwave) seems necessary. ( info)

10/16. Atypical termination of simultaneous sino-atrial and atrio-ventricular Wenckebach type conduction caused by atrial premature beats.

    This is a case report of a patient with group beating characterized by progressively shortening P-P intervals and at the same time gradually increasing P-R intervals showing R-P/P-R interval reciprocity due to the simultaneous occurrence of sino-atrial (S-A) Wenckebach and atrio-ventricular (A-V) Wenckebach-like periodicities. All group beatings are terminated by atrial premature beats elicited by a critical P-P interval shortening during S-A Wenckebach type conduction preventing the typical termination of Wenckebach periods. ( info)
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