Cases reported "Atrophy"

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11/160. The role of the dynamic body schema in praxis: evidence from primary progressive apraxia.

    On an influential model of limb praxis, ideomotor apraxia results from damage to stored gesture representations or disconnection of representations from sensory input or motor output (Heilman & Gonzalez Rothi, 1993; Gonzalez Rothi et al., 1991). We report data from a patient with progressive ideomotor limb apraxia which cannot be readily accommodated by this model. The patient, BG, is profoundly impaired in gesturing to command, to sight of object, and to imitation, but gestures nearly normally with tool in hand and recognizes gestures relatively well. In addition, performance is profoundly impaired on imitation of meaningless gestures and on tasks requiring spatiomotor transformations of body-position information. We provide evidence that BG's apraxia is largely attributable to impairments external to the stored gesture system in procedures coding the dynamic positions of the body parts of self and others; that is, the body schema. We propose a model of a dynamic, interactive praxis system subserved by posterior parietal cortex in which stored representational elements, when present, provide "top-down" support to spatiomotor procedures computed on-line. In addition to accounting for BG's performance, this model accommodates a common pattern of ideomotor apraxia more readily than competing accounts.
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12/160. An autopsy case of atypical adrenoleukomyeloneuropathy in childhood.

    Adrenoleukomyeloneuropathy (ALMN) usually occurs in adulthood, it being extremely rare in childhood. We reported a quite atypical clinical case of ALMN as a variant of adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD). The onset was at 5 years 7 months and ataxia was the major symptom. His condition progressed rapidly to a vegetative state within 1 year. At the age of 11 years and 11 months he died of pneumonia and an autopsy was performed. We herein reported the neuropathological findings in this rare case. The autopsy revealed marked atrophy with diffuse demyelination and astrogliosis throughout the cerebrum, cerebellum and brainstem. Massive degeneration of the pyramidal tracts and loss of neurons were also seen in the spinal cord. The adrenal cortex showed marked atrophy with a striated cytoplasm in ballooned cells. These findings include pathological characteristics of both ALD and adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN), suggesting ALMN. However, diffuse demyelination with gliosis in the cerebrum and cerebellum is quite atypical for ALMN. They might explain his atypical clinical course, especially the early onset of the disease with ataxia and rapid deterioration.
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13/160. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of a patient with gerstmann-straussler-scheinker disease.

    A 23-year-old woman with gerstmann-straussler-scheinker disease (GSS) was investigated by 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). She developed gait ataxic at 22 years. The diagnosis was confirmed by dna analysis showing a proline-to-leucine point mutation at codon 102 of the prion protein. On 1H-MRS, she showed a remarkable reduction of the N-acetylaspartate/creatine ratio in the frontal lobe, cerebellar hemisphere and vermis and putamen. MRI revealed mild atrophy of the cerebellar hemispheres and vermis and cerebral cortex, but single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with 99mHMPAO showed normal perfusion in the cerebellum. The imaging studies suggest that MRS might be superior to MRI or SPECT for detection of early neuronal degeneration.
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14/160. A new familial adult-onset leukodystrophy manifesting as cerebellar ataxia and dementia.

    BACKGROUND: Among hereditary leukodystrophies, a considerable number remain unclassified. patients AND RESULTS: We investigated the clinical course and histopathology of one patient in a family of adult-onset leukodystrophy with possible dominant inheritance. A 44-year-old man presented with cerebellar ataxia as the initial symptom, and later, dementia and hyperreflexia with ankle clonus developed. T2-weighted brain MRI showed brain atrophy and diffuse high signal intensity of the cerebral white matter and the brain stem. The patient's mother and older brother also had cerebellar ataxia and dementia, and his older brother had been diagnosed as having spinocerebellar degeneration. An older sister of our patient possibly had similar neurological symptoms of adult-onset. Our patient died of pneumonia 5 years after the onset of disease. The histopathological findings consisted mainly of patchily observed vacuolar changes in the cerebral and cerebellar white matter and the brain stem. The subcortical regions and the cortex were unaffected. It is suggested that the pathological changes began in the cerebellum, and later spread to the frontal lobe and the brain stem. In the occipital regions, the vacuolations were associated with accumulation of macrophages and astrocytosis, which implied that the vacuolations were of recent origin. CONCLUSIONS: The diagnosis in this patient is adult-onset leukodystrophy with possibly autosomal dominant inheritance. The clinicopathological features are different from those, of previously reported adult-onset leukodystrophies.
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15/160. Semantic knowledge and episodic memory for faces in semantic dementia.

    Previous studies have documented poor recognition memory for faces in patients with semantic dementia. Preserved face recognition memory was found in this study, however, so long as atrophy was confined predominantly to the left temporal lobe. patients with structural damage to the right temporal lobe were typically impaired, with the status of the hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus (including the perirhinal cortex) on the right being critical. Two single-case studies of patients with predominantly left temporal lobe pathology confirmed good recognition memory for famous faces, even if semantic knowledge about the celebrities depicted was severely degraded. An effect of semantic knowledge on recognition memory became apparent only when perceptually different photographs of the famous people were used at study and test. These results support the view that new episodic learning typically draws on information from both perceptual and semantic systems.
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16/160. Severe anterograde amnesia with extensive hippocampal degeneration in a case of rapidly progressive frontotemporal dementia.

    frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is usually characterized as a spectrum of relatively slowly progressive disorders with largely focal frontal or temporal presentations. The development of clinical and research criteria for discriminating FTD from Alzheimer's disease has relied, in part, on the relative preservation of episodic memory in FTD. We present a patient with FTD who, in addition to the more typical behavioural and language deficits, had a profound anterograde amnesia at the time of diagnosis. neuroimaging confirmed atrophy of frontal and temporal lobes bilaterally, most marked in the anterior left temporal region. At post-mortem, non-Alzheimer pathology resulting in devastating cell loss was revealed in the hippocampi, as well as in the frontal and temporal cortex, thus providing neuroanatomical corroboration of the episodic memory deficit. Progression of the disease was extraordinarily rapid, with just 2 years between reported onset and time of death. This case demonstrates that the pattern of FTD may include severe anterograde amnesia as a prominent and early consequence of the disease.
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17/160. Hemispheric dominance for emotions, empathy and social behaviour: evidence from right and left handers with frontotemporal dementia.

    Although evidence from primates suggests an important role for the anterior temporal cortex in social behaviour, human research has to date concentrated almost solely on the orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala. By describing four cases of the temporal variant of frontotemporal dementia we show how this degenerative condition provides an excellent model for investigating the role of the anterior temporal lobe, especially the right, in emotions, empathy and social behaviour. Assessments of semantic memory, processing of emotional facial expression and emotional prosody were made, empathy was measured, and facial expressions of emotion were coded. Of the two right handers described, one subject with predominantly left temporal lobe atrophy had severe semantic impairment but normal performance on all emotional tasks. In contrast, the subject with right temporal lobe atrophy showed severely impaired recognition of emotion from faces and voices that was not due to semantic or perceptual difficulties. empathy was lost, interpersonal skills were severely affected and facial expression of emotion was characterized by a fixed expression that was unresponsive to situations. Additionally, two left handers with right temporal lobe atrophy are described. One demonstrated the same pattern of hemispheric lateralization as the right handers and had emotional impairment. The other left hander showed the opposite pattern of deficits, suggesting a novel presentation of anomalous dominance with reversed hemispheric specialization of semantic memory and emotional processing.
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18/160. A disorder similar to Huntington's disease is associated with a novel CAG repeat expansion.

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by abnormalities of movement, cognition, and emotion and selective atrophy of the striatum and cerebral cortex. While the etiology of HD is known to be a CAG trinucleotide repeat expansion, the pathways by which this mutation causes HD pathology remain unclear. We now report a large pedigree with an autosomal dominant disorder that is clinically similar to HD and that arises from a different CAG expansion mutation. The disorder is characterized by onset in the fourth decade, involuntary movements and abnormalities of voluntary movement, psychiatric symptoms, weight loss, dementia, and a relentless course with death about 20 years after disease onset. Brain magnetic resonance imaging scans and an autopsy revealed marked striatal atrophy and moderate cortical atrophy, with striatal neurodegeneration in a dorsal to ventral gradient and occasional intranuclear inclusions. All tested affected individuals, and no tested unaffecteds, have a CAG trinucleotide repeat expansion of 50 to 60 triplets, as determined by the repeat expansion detection assay. Tests for the HD expansion, for all other known CAG expansion mutations, and for linkage to chromosomes 20p and 4p were negative, indicating that this mutation is novel. Cloning the causative CAG expansion mutation for this new disease, which we have termed Huntington's disease-like 2, may yield valuable insight into the pathogenesis of HD and related disorders.
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19/160. A disorder of colour perception associated with abnormal colour after-images: a defect of the primary visual cortex.

    A 64 year old woman with posterior cortical atrophy secondary to probable Alzheimer's disease is described. Her presenting symptom was of seeing objects as abnormally coloured after prior exposure to a coloured stimulus. Formal testing disclosed that the patient experienced colour after-images of abnormal latency, duration, and amplitude.The demonstration of prolonged colour after-images in a patient with a cortical disease process provides strong evidence that the generation of colour after-images is mediated at least in part by the visual cortex. A mechanism for the generation of colour after-images is proposed in which abnormal prolongation of the images results from excessive rebound inhibition of previously excited wavelength selective neurons in V1. This may occur as a consequence of the relative sparing of inhibitory interneurons in V1 in the context of the degeneration of excitatory neurons that occurs in Alzheimer's disease.
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20/160. Argyrophilic grain disease mimicking temporal Pick's disease: a clinical, radiological, and pathological study of an autopsy case with a clinical course of 15 years.

    This report concerns an autopsy case of argyrophilic grain disease (AGD) mimicking temporal Pick's disease. The patient was a Japanese woman without hereditary burden who was 89 years old at the time of death. She developed memory impairment and began wandering at the age of 74, followed by prominent character changes about 6 years after disease onset. A neurological examination 5 months before her death revealed poor rapport, unconcern, severe dementia, and double incontinence, without aphasia or muscle rigidity. Serial neuroradiological examination revealed progressive enlargement of the bilateral inferior horns of the lateral ventricle, reflecting progressive atrophy of the medial temporal lobes. Macroscopically, neuropathological examination showed circumscribed atrophy of the bilateral amygdalae, hippocampi, parahippocampal gyri, and lateral occipitotemporal gyri. Histologically, there was neuronal loss in the areas mentioned above, the caudate nucleus, putamen, thalamus, substantia nigra, and locus ceruleus, with ballooned neurons in the cerebral cortex and amygdala. Numerous argyrophilic grains with coiled bodies were present not only in the limbic system, but also in the affected cerebrum. Rare neurofibrillary changes were present in the limbic areas, consistent with Braak stage II, with no senile plaques. Based on these findings and a review of the literature, we note that AGD is clinicopathologically similar not only to mesolimbocortical dementia, but also to atypical senile dementia of Alzheimer type. This report may contribute to the elucidation of the clinicopathological hallmarks of AGD.
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