Cases reported "Atrophy"

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1/90. MELAS with prominent white matter gliosis and atrophy of the cerebellar granular layer: a clinical, genetic, and pathological study.

    This report concerns an autopsy case of mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) with unusual neuropathological findings. The patient was a Japanese woman who was 21 years old at the time of death. Her mother is a patient with genetically confirmed MELAS. Her clinical manifestations included convulsions and lactic acidosis in the latter half of the first decade of life, followed by deafness, dementia, muscle weakness in the lower extremities, slight ataxia in the upper and lower extremities, and diabetes mellitus. Muscle biopsy revealed ragged-red fibers, and genetic study showed a point mutation at nucleotide pair 3243 in mitochondrial dna. She died of lactic acidosis. In the clinical course, she did not develop stroke-like episodes. The neuropathological examination revealed not only minute to small necrotic foci in the cerebral cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, and cerebellum, but also prominent white matter gliosis in the central nervous system and cerebellar cortical degeneration of granular cell type. Our neuropathological findings, including prominent white matter gliosis of the central nervous system and cerebellar cortical degeneration of granular cell type, may indicate morphologically widespread cellular dysfunction, not restricted to either neuronal or vascular derangement, in the brain pathology of MELAS.
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2/90. Congenital muscular dystrophy with central and peripheral nervous system involvement in a Belgian patient.

    We report a patient with congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD), developmental brain defects, and peripheral neuropathy. Marked hypotonia and plagiocephaly were noted at birth. failure to thrive, generalized muscle weakness and wasting, absent deep tendon reflexes, partial seizures, and secondary microcephaly developed. Brain MRI showed a large area of cortical dysplasia, a thin but complete corpus callosum, and diffuse ventriculomegaly. Nerve conduction velocities were slow and creatine kinase levels only mildly elevated. Muscle biopsy showed dystrophic features with normal merosin, sarcoglycan, and dystrophin immunostaining. The Japanese Fukuyama CMD founder mutation was not detected. This is the first report of a patient with merosin-positive CMD, cobblestone lissencephaly, and demyelinating peripheral neuropathy.
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keywords = nervous system
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3/90. Congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis: a case report.

    Congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (CIPA) is a very rare genetic disorder of the peripheral nervous system characterized by recurrent episodes of unexplained fever, generalized anhidrosis, insensitivity to pain and temperature, and accompanied by self-mutilating behavior and mental retardation. We report on a 16 month-old boy with CIPA who exhibited these characteristic clinical features. A sural nerve biopsy revealed markedly reduced numbers of unmyelinated and small myelinated fibers, consistent with the characteristic features of CIPA.
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4/90. MRI of wolfram syndrome (DIDMOAD).

    wolfram syndrome (DIDMOAD) is a rare diffuse neurodegenerative disorder characterised by diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, deafness, and a wide variety of abnormalities of the central nervous system, urinary tract and endocrine glands. It may be familial or sporadic. Reported features on MRI of the brain are absence of the physiological high signal of the posterior lobe of the pituitary, shrinkage of optic nerves, chiasm and tracts, atrophy of the hypothalamic region, brain stem, cerebellum, and cerebral cortex. We report a 12-year-old girl with a 5-year history without brain stem, cerebellar or cerebral atrophy. MRI showed an unusual feature: a focus of high signal on PD- and T2-weighted images in the right substantia nigra. This is consistent with previously reported neuropathological post-mortem studies, but has never been reported in vivo.
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keywords = nervous system
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5/90. Clinical and neuroradiological follow-up in mucopolysaccharidosis type III (Sanfilippo syndrome).

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type III (Sanfilippo syndrome) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterised by progressive nervous system involvement with mental retardation, behavioural problems and seizures. Three patients, of 20 months to 12 years of age, were followed up for 3 years both clinically and by using brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Our results suggest that in MPS III patients MRI findings, including atrophy and abnormal or delayed myelination, may precede the onset of overt neurological symptoms. The increasing neurological morbidity is accompanied by different degrees of progressive atrophic changes, mainly affecting the cerebral cortex and the corpus callosum. However, it appears that, across subjects, the rate of MRI changes is unrelated to the severity of the clinical phenotype. On this basis it could be argued that in MPS III the worsening of the neurological symptoms might not necessarily reflect only the progressive cerebral abnormalities detectable by MRI.
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6/90. Neurophysiological findings in a case of carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein (CDG) syndrome type I with phosphomannomutase deficiency.

    The carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein (CDG) syndromes are multisystemic disorders involving the glycosylation pathway. The most common subtype is CDG syndrome type I (CDG I). In most CDG I patients a phosphomannomutase (PMM) deficiency has been recognized as the basic defect. We made a neurophysiological evaluation in an 8-year-old boy affected by CDG I with PMM deficiency. The evaluation included central and peripheral nervous system assessment [electroencephalogram (EEG), multimodal evoked potentials (MEP), somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP), visual evoked potentials (VEP), auditory brainstem response (ABR), electroretinogram (ERG) and motor and sensory nervous conduction velocity (NCV)]. We found a peculiar electrophysiological pattern characterized by slowly and mildly progressive motor NCV reduction; progressive impairment of ERG and VEP; slowing of background activity and sharp waves at the EEGs; late sensorineural abnormality of ABR; decreased amplitude and increased latency of SEP. To our knowledge this is the first report involving the neurophysiological aspects both at onset and during follow-up of a case of CDG I with proven PMM deficiency.
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keywords = nervous system
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7/90. Brain magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities in merosin-positive congenital muscular dystrophy.

    We report the brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in 23 patients with merosin-positive congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD). Twelve patients had normal scans. Eight other children had essentially normal scans but showed mild non-specific periventricular white matter changes. Three children had structural abnormalities on imaging. The first patient, a 15-month-old boy with hypotonia, muscle weakness and global development delay, had moderate cerebellar atrophy and mild dilatation of the lateral ventricles. The second child, a 3-year-old ambulant girl with subtle learning problems, had mild cerebellar hypoplasia and a large subarachnoid space when scanned at 16 months. The third patient, a 15-year-old ambulant male with normal intelligence and complex partial seizures, had polymicrogyria of both temporoparietal lobes on brain MRI. The clinical features and motor ability of children with merosin-positive CMD are variable, although usually milder than merosin-deficient CMD. Our findings confirm that central nervous system involvement can occur in some merosin-positive cases. We suggest performing brain MRI in children with merosin-positive CMD, as this may help in our understanding of this very heterogeneous disease.
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keywords = nervous system
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8/90. Type II neurofibromatosis presenting as quadriceps atrophy.

    A young woman aged 26 years presented with atrophy of the left quadriceps progressing over one year. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a large lesion of the lumbar plexus compatible with neurinoma. Cerebral MRI revealed a lesion in the right eighth cranial nerve also compatible with neurinoma. On further questioning of the patient, it was learned that her mother had undergone surgery twice for acoustic neurinoma. Type II neurofibromatosis was diagnosed from the basis of clinical picture, neuroimaging findings and family history. This case is unusual for the lack of central nervous system (CNS) symptoms. Expansive radicular lesions compatible with neurinoma should prompt cerebral MRI. Regular examination of family members at risk and early diagnosis can decrease the high mortality associated with this condition.
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9/90. Kawasaki disease with predominant central nervous system involvement.

    A 4-year-old female was hospitalized with clinical and electroencephalographic evidence of acute encephalopathy. Five days later the classic signs of Kawasaki disease appeared. The neurologic outcome in this female was poor despite early treatment with immunoglobulin. Like many other vasculitidies, Kawasaki disease can have predominant neurologic symptoms as the initial presentation and during the subsequent evolution of the condition.
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keywords = nervous system
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10/90. diabetes insipidus secondary to penetrating spinal cord trauma: case report and literature review.

    STUDY DESIGN: Case report. OBJECTIVE: To present a case of central diabetes insipidus (CDI) that developed after a gunshot injury to the thorax and thoracic spinal cord and to discuss the disease process in light of the relevant literature. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) abnormalities may develop after spinal trauma and/or surgery. Although there are published reports of inappropriate adh syndrome arising in this clinical picture, CDI is rare. methods: A 33-year-old woman with hemopneumothorax and a gunshot wound to her thoracic spine was treated with chest tube drainage. No surgery was performed for the spinal injury. The patient was paraplegic on admission and rapidly developed excessive urine output. Testing revealed that her serum ADH level was low, consistent with CDI. Desmopressin acetate nasal spray was the prescribed treatment. RESULTS: The patient responded well to the desmopressin acetate spray. CONCLUSIONS: CDI is a complicated hormonal disorder characterized by excessive urine output. It is typically linked to an abnormality in the hypothalamohypophyseal axis that markedly reduces ADH production. The most common inciting causes are craniocerebral trauma, brain tumor and/or surgery, and central nervous system infection. Although uncommon, CDI should be considered when a spinal trauma patient develops excessive urine output.
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