Cases reported "Atrophy"

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1/143. multimodal imaging of residual function and compensatory resource allocation in cortical atrophy: a case study of parietal lobe function in a patient with Huntington's disease.

    In a case of Huntington's disease (HD) with dementia and pronounced parieto-frontal atrophy, the functional state of the affected regions was investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). It was observed that although parietal areas showed extensive atrophy and reduced resting glucose metabolism, the patient performed with similar accuracy but with longer response time in a visuospatial task compared with healthy control subjects. At the same time, the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI signal in these areas, which are involved in visuospatial processing, showed a similar task-dependent modulation as in control subjects. The signal amplitude (signal percent change) of the task-dependent activation was even higher for the HD patient than in the control group. This residual functionality of parietal areas involved in visuospatial processing could account for the patient's performance in the task concerned, which contrasted with his poor performance in other cognitive tasks. The increased percent-signal change suggests that a higher neuronal effort was necessary to reach a similar degree of accuracy as in control subjects, fitting well with the longer reaction time. We propose that fMRI should be considered as a tool for the assessment of functionality of morphologically abnormal cortex and for the investigation of compensatory resource allocation in neurodegenerative disorders.
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2/143. Pagetoid self-healing Langerhans cell histiocytosis in an infant.

    We report Langerhans cell (LC) histiocytosis in a male infant who developed numerous papular lesions on the trunk and posterior scalp soon after birth and spontaneously recovered from the disease within 7 months. Histologically S-100-positive cells were detected in the epidermis and papillary dermis, in some lesions mostly in the epidermis. Tumor cells in the epidermis were either clustered, forming nests, or scattered singly in pagetoid fashion. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of Birbeck granules in these cells. They exhibited many interesting features usually not found in normal LCs, including mitosis, frequent apoptosis, Birbeck granules invaginated in the nucleus, autophagocytosis of Birbeck granules, and active ingestion of extracellular material through Birbeck granules attached to cell membranes. It is suggested that either a strong epidermotropism of tumor cells or a proliferation of the resident LCs of the epidermis is responsible for this intraepidermal growth pattern. Cellular necrosis through very active apoptosis and the superficial nature of the growth might have contributed to the self-healing course in this patient.
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3/143. A case of McLeod syndrome with chronic renal failure.

    A 50-year-old man with the rare McLeod syndrome, associated with glomerular lesion to the end stage of chronic renal failure and death, is reported. McLeod syndrome is an X-linked recessive disorder on the basis of abnormal expression of the Kell blood group antigens and absence of erythrocyte surface Kx antigen. Most often the clinical and pathological findings are retinitis pigmentosa to blindness, progressive chronic neuropathy, cortical atrophy, dilated cardiomyopathy, and glomerular lesion with chronic renal failure. Among the laboratory parameters the most important are very low level of cholesterol and triglycerides, then various numbers of acanthocytes in peripheral blood smears and sometimes in urine (as in our case).
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4/143. Watermelon-stomach as a cause of chronic iron deficiency anemia in a patient with systemic sclerosis.

    Watermelon-stomach is a rare cause of gastrointestinal bleeding. There has been an increasing number of reports on the association of this lesion with diseases of the scleroderma group, causing chronic, sometimes severe gastrointestinal blood loss. The present report presents the case of a 75-year-old female with limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis and watermelon-stomach, which was the cause of her long-standing sideropenic anemia.
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5/143. A case of McLeod syndrome with unusually severe myopathy.

    A 51-year-old man developed weakness and muscle atrophy in the legs at the age of 41, later followed by choreiform involuntary movements. Neurological and laboratory examinations revealed severe muscle weakness and atrophy, and areflexia in all the extremities, acanthocytosis and an elevated serum creatine kinase level. Together with these findings, the weak expression of Kell blood group antigens and the absence of the Kx antigen led to a definite diagnosis of McLeod syndrome for his condition. brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed marked atrophy of the head of the caudate nuclei. Although immunocytochemical analysis of dystrophin in muscle specimens from our patient revealed normal staining, we found prominent fiber size variability, central nuclei, and connective tissue proliferation as well as necrotic and regenerating fibers, which are as a whole compatible with the myopathology of muscular dystrophy. Moreover, muscle computerized tomography of the lower extremities revealed the 'selectivity pattern' characteristically reported in muscular dystrophies including Duchenne type muscular dystrophy. The muscular symptoms and pathology in McLeod syndrome have been reported to be mild, but the present case clearly shows that the muscular features in this condition may be much more severe than previously thought.
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6/143. Neurologic sequelae of treatment of primary CNS lymphomas.

    Novel efficient and aggressive treatment protocols for primary CNS lymphomas have resulted in an increasing number of long term survivors. Follow up data show that in a substantial fraction of these patients, treatment benefits are overshadowed by neurotoxic sequelae. Neurotoxicity especially affects the older age group, presenting as cognitive dysfunction, ataxia or dementia as a consequence of leukoencephalopathy and brain atrophy. The combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy seems to be particularly hazardous, though data are too sparse to draw any definite conclusions yet. Long term follow up of patients included in clinical studies therefore should not only evaluate survival or time to tumour progression, but also serial neuropsychometric evaluation and quality of life assessment.
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7/143. Clinical and molecular studies in three Portuguese mtDNA T8993G families.

    The T8993G mutation in the mitochondrial dna adenosine triphosphatase 6 gene represents an important cause of maternally inherited Leigh's syndrome. Reported are the clinical findings and mutational loads in three Portuguese T8993G pedigrees. polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses demonstrated the T8993G mutation in a high percentage of tissues from all patients (97% /- 2.3%), but it was less abundant in the blood from 14 maternal relatives. The disease progressed severely in the probands but did not have the fatal course reported by others. To test whether this prolonged course was related to the presence of a specific, disease-associated haplogroup the origin of the mutational event in portugal was traced. Haplotype investigation revealed an independent occurrence of the mutation in the three probands. These analyses represent the first molecular characterization of Portuguese patients with Leigh's syndrome.
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8/143. Lower motor neuron disease associated with myelofibrosis.

    We present a patient who has signs pointing to the involvement of lower motor neurons and myelofibrosis. To our knowledge, unlike lymphoproliferative disorders, co-occurrence of myelofibrosis and lower motor neuron disease (MND) has not been reported so far. A 64-year-old male patient was admitted to our hospital with the complaint of painful cramps in his neck and forearms. On physical examination marked hepatomegaly and splenomegaly were found. On neurologic examination nasal quality of the voice and slight palatal weakness were detected. There were generalised slight weakness and atrophy in both proximal and distal muscle groups. Fasciculations were observed especially in forearm muscles and it was observed that he had been avoiding head movements because of painful muscle cramps. Deep tendon reflexes were hypoactive. Nerve conduction studies were normal. By needle electromyography, giant motor unit action potentials (amplitudes up to 8 mV), fibrillation potentials, positive sharp waves and fasciculation potentials were detected in all muscles which were investigated. A hypercellular bone marrow (100%) was determined by bone marrow biopsy. In addition to increased production of the myeloid and megakaryocytic lines, abnormal aggregation and grouping of megakaryocytes were seen. Reticular fibers were increased. He had some benefit of dyphenilhydantoin treatment given for the painful cramps in his neck and forearm muscles. hydroxyurea treatment was started for myelofibrosis. Six months later, his general condition was better, and the painful cramps were completely resolved. No marked deterioration has been detected in neurologic examination and electromyography for 1 year.
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9/143. Recessively inherited spastic paraplegia associated with ataxia, congenital cataracts, thin corpus callosum and axonal neuropathy.

    We investigated a consanguineous Japanese family with a complicated form of familial spastic paraplegia (FSP). Three siblings were affected, probably by autosomal recessive inheritance. All showed ataxia, subnormal mentality, congenital cataracts, and slight cerebellar atrophy on CT scans. Spastic paraplegia was predominant in 2 siblings, while ataxia was more marked in the other. Slight but definite atrophy of the corpus callosum and axonal neuropathy were demonstrated in 1 sibling who underwent detailed investigation. review of similar cases reported in the literature indicates that this recessively inherited disorder probably represents a homogeneous group within the heterogeneous cluster of complicated FSP.
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10/143. Pallido-Luysio-Nigral atrophy revealed by rapidly progressive hemidystonia: a clinical, radiologic, functional, and neuropathologic study.

    Pallido-luysio-nigral atrophy (PLNA) is a rare neurodegenerative disease in which the clinical and radiologic correlates have not yet been clearly established. A 62-year-old man insidiously developed dystonic postures, choreoathetoid movements, slowness, and stiffness, which initially affected the right hand and foot and progressively spread to the entire right side. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging showed increased signal intensity in both left and right medial pallida and in the left substantia nigra. Tests using HMPAO-SPECT and FDG-PET demonstrated left cortical hyperperfusion and hypermetabolism, whereas the left lenticular nucleus was slightly hypometabolic. At age 65, abnormal movements and postures involved all four limbs and the axis causing major gait disturbances, and facial and bulbar muscles atrophied resulting in dysarthria, dysphagia, and impaired breathing. Diffuse amyotrophy and fasciculations also appeared. death occurred at age 66, 4 years after onset. At autopsy, severe bilateral neuronal loss and gliosis restricted to the pallidum, the subthalamic nucleus, the substantia nigra, and the hypoglossal nucleus were noted, accounting for the diagnosis of PLNA with lower motor neuron involvement. Progressive hemidystonia with adult onset represents an unusual clinical presentation for this disorder. Moreover, this observation indicates that a diagnosis of PLNA should be considered for specific magnetic resonance imaging, SPECT, and/or PET data, and suggests that in PLNA, pallidal dysfunction might play a key role in the dystonic presentation.
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