Cases reported "Autoimmune Diseases"

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1/33. An inherited disorder of lymphocyte apoptosis: the autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome.

    The autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) affords novel insights into the mechanisms that regulate lymphocyte homeostasis and underlie the development of autoimmunity. This syndrome arises early in childhood in persons who inherit mutations in genes that mediate apoptosis, or programmed cell death. The timely deletion of lymphocytes is a way to prevent their accumulation and the persistence of cells that can react against the body's own antigens. In ALPS, defective lymphocyte apoptosis permits chronic, nonmalignant adenopathy and splenomegaly; the survival of normally uncommon "double-negative" CD3 CD4- CD8- T cells; and the development of autoimmune disease. Most cases of ALPS involve heterozygous mutations in the lymphocyte surface protein Fas that impair a major apoptotic pathway. Detailed immunologic investigations of the cellular and cytokine profiles in ALPS show a prominent skewing toward a T-helper 2 phenotype; this provides a rational explanation for the humoral autoimmunity typical of patients with ALPS. Prospective evaluations of 26 patients and their families show an ever-expanding spectrum of ALPS and its major complications: hypersplenism, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and neutropenia. Defective apoptosis may also contribute to a heightened risk for lymphoma.
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2/33. Increased spontaneous in vitro apoptosis in double negative T cells of humans with a fas/apo-1 mutation.

    We describe a 17 year old patient suffering from Canale-Smith syndrome (CSS) including chronic lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, hypergammaglobulinemia and recurrent Coombs positive hemolytic crises. The parents are not consanguine, all other family members including two brothers are healthy. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells of the patient showed an increased rate of CD3 positive, CD4/CD8 double negative t-lymphocytes. in vitro assays showed these cells to have an increased rate of spontaneous apoptosis. Though expression of Fas/Apo-1 (CD95) and Fas-ligand (FasL) was detected on rna- and protein level we found Fas/Apo-1 mediated apoptosis being significantly reduced. Sequencing of the fas/apo-1 gene proved the patient RT and his father to carry a point mutation at position 804 located in exon 9 (death domain) leading to an amino acid substitution. For developing of CSS, a fas/apo-1 mutation seems to be necessary but not sufficient. An additional independent mechanism must be involved in the pathogenesis of human lpr<-phenotype.
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ranking = 0.85714285714286
keywords = apoptosis
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3/33. Defective apoptosis due to a point mutation in the death domain of CD95 associated with autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome, T-cell lymphoma, and Hodgkin's disease.

    apoptosis via CD95 and its ligand is an important mechanism that prevents uncontrolled proliferation of activated lymphocytes and regulates lymphocyte homeostasis. The apoptosis receptor CD95 is a transmembrane protein with an intracellular domain well conserved between CD95 and tumor necrosis factor receptor I, another apoptosis-inducing protein. Because of its functional importance, this domain was designated the death domain. We describe the molecular analysis of the CD95 death domain in a family with autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (Canale-Smith syndrome), T-cell lymphoma, and Hodgkin's disease. A functional defect in apoptosis was detected in cells from the index patient, a 5-year-old girl suffering from Canale-Smith syndrome and a T-cell lymphoma, as well as in her father, who had a history of splenomegaly and mild hemolysis, and her paternal uncle who had been cured of Hodgkin's disease (HD). Expansion of double-negative T cells (CD4-CD8-) was only seen in the index patient. All family members with a functional defect in apoptosis were heterozygous for a point mutation in the death domain of CD95 (A1009G, E256G). We conclude that, within the same family, a defect in apoptosis due to a mutation in the CD95 death domain can be associated with diverse clinical phenotypes, including mild, reversible symptoms and different malignancies.
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ranking = 1.2857142857143
keywords = apoptosis
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4/33. Reversible monoclonal lymphadenopathy in autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome with functional FAS (CD95/APO-1) deficiency.

    The FAS (CD95/APO-1) receptor and its ligand play an important role in the initiation of apoptosis under many physiologic conditions. Loss of function mutations of the FAS gene have been described in lpr mice and in humans with autoimmune phenomena, recurrent lymphadenopathies, and hepatosplenomegaly. This syndrome is now called autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome type I (ALPS I). Recently, patients with similar clinical symptoms due to a functional FAS deficiency without FAS gene mutations have been distinguished. This disease has been termed autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome type II (ALPS II) or autoimmune lymphoproliferative disease (ALD). This report is the first description of the lymph node pathology and immunohistochemistry in a patient with ALPS II. After recurrent bacterial infections, a 4-year-old child developed cervical giant lymphadenopathy suggesting lymphoma. Lymph node histology resembled the findings in Epstein Barr virus-associated posttransplant atypical lymphoproliferations. Confluent sheets of immunoblasts, however, showed a monoclonal expression of IgG/lambda and a monoclonal rearrangement of the JH chain. The same clone was also present in the peripheral blood. Although high-grade lymphoma could not be excluded, the patient's parents insisted on the patient's leaving the hospital with only antibiotic treatment. Surprisingly, the giant lymphadenopathy completely resolved within 7 weeks, and the clone was no longer detectable in the peripheral blood. Twelve months later the patient was still free from lymphoma and was doing well. Retrospectively, transient monoclonal B-cell populations could be identified in an archival frozen blood sample taken when the patient was 3 years old. Increased FAS-independent spontaneous apoptosis was a feature of the patient's lymphocytes and could be the molecular basis for self-elimination of B-cell clones. We conclude that the diagnosis of a FAS-FAS-L deficiency should be considered in children with an otherwise unexplained atypical lymphoproliferation and that a diagnosis of lymphoma in patients with functional FAS deficiency should be made with considerable reservation.
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ranking = 0.28571428571429
keywords = apoptosis
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5/33. Inherited human caspase 10 mutations underlie defective lymphocyte and dendritic cell apoptosis in autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome type II.

    caspases are cysteine proteases that mediate programmed cell death in phylogenetically diverse multicellular organisms. We report here two kindreds with autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) type II, characterized by abnormal lymphocyte and dendritic cell homeostasis and immune regulatory defects, that harbor independent missense mutations in caspase 10. These encode amino acid substitutions that decrease caspase activity and interfere with death receptor-induced apoptosis, particularly that stimulated by Fas ligand and TRAIL. These results provide evidence that inherited nonlethal caspase abnormalities cause pleiotropic apoptosis defects underlying autoimmunity in ALPS type II.
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ranking = 0.85714285714286
keywords = apoptosis
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6/33. Identification of new Fas mutations in a patient with autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) and eosinophilia.

    autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a rare, newly recognized, chronic lymphoproliferative disorder in children and is characterized by lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, pancytopenia, autoimmune phenomena and expansion of double-negative (DN) T lymphocytes (TCR alpha beta , CD4-, CD8-). Defective lymphocyte apoptosis caused by mutations of the Fas (CD95) gene has been linked in the pathogenesis of ALPS, as binding of Fas-ligand to Fas can trigger apoptosis. Of the ALPS cases reported to date, point mutations, frameshifts and silent mutations in Fas all have been identified. We report two new point mutations in Fas in a child with ALPS and eosinophilia; studies on other family members established the pattern of inheritance for these mutations. Flow cytometric analysis of blood and tissues (spleen, lymph node, bone marrow) revealed abnormally expanded populations of DN T lymphocytes. Furthermore, activated lymphocytes and IFN gamma-activated eosinophils were resistant to Fas-mediated apoptosis. Eosinophil resistance to Fas-mediated apoptosis has not been previously described in ALPS. Sequencing of Fas revealed two separate mutations not previously reported. One mutation, a C to T change at base 836, was a silent mutation inherited from the mother, while the second mutation, a C to A change at base 916, caused a non-conservative amino acid substitution in the death domain of Fas, changing a threonine to a lysine. This mutation is associated with a predicted change in the structure of a part of the death domain from a beta-pleated sheet to an alpha-helix. We speculate that the mutation in the death domain prevents the interaction of Fas with intracellular mediators of apoptosis and is responsible for the autoimmune manifestations of ALPS and the abnormal lymphocytosis and eosinophilia in this patient.
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keywords = apoptosis
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7/33. autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) in a child from consanguineous parents: a dominant or recessive disease?

    autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is characterized by autoimmune features and lymphoproliferations and is generally caused by defective Fas-mediated apoptosis. This report describes a child with clinical features of ALPS without detectable Fas expression on freshly isolated blood leukocytes. Detection of FAS transcripts via real-time quantitative PCR made a severe transcriptional defect unlikely. Sequencing of the FAS gene revealed a 20-nucleotide duplication in the last exon affecting the cytoplasmic signaling domain. The patient was homozygous for this mutation, whereas the consanguineous parents and the siblings were heterozygous. The patient reported here is a human homologue of the Fas-null mouse, inasmuch as she carries an autosomal homozygous mutation in the FAS gene and she shows the severe and accelerated ALPS phenotype. The heterozygous family members did not have the ALPS phenotype, indicating that the disease-causing FAS mutation in this family is autosomal recessive.
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ranking = 0.14285714285714
keywords = apoptosis
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8/33. Report of a factor viii inhibitor in a patient with autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome.

    The occurrence of factor viii inhibitors in non-hemophilic patients is a rare event with a potentially lethal outcome. Despite its infrequent occurrence, the association of this inhibitor with multiple autoimmune diseases is well recognized. We report the case of a patient with the recently described autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) who developed an inhibitor to factor viii. ALPS is a disease characterized by defective lymphocyte apoptosis due to inherited mutations in genes that regulate apoptosis, with the resulting enlargement of lymphoid organs and a variety of autoimmune manifestations. Published 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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ranking = 0.28571428571429
keywords = apoptosis
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9/33. cytomegalovirus infection in infants with autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS).

    Fas-mediated apoptosis may be one of the effector pathways leading to the elimination of virus-infected cells. cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in two brothers with Fas deficiency associated with autoimmunity and benign lymphoproliferation (ALPS) provided a unique opportunity to study the clinical course of CMV infection in children with defective apoptosis. The clinical courses of two brothers with autosomal dominant ALPS who were infected with CMV in the neonatal period are described. CMV was detected from throat and urine culture from the brothers. ALPS was confirmed by in vitro anti-CD95 MoAb-induced T lymphocyte apoptosis assay and subsequent sequencing and identification of mutations in the Fas gene. A de novo mutation in the Fas gene, leading to a truncated cytoplasmic Fas product, was associated with autosomal dominant ALPS in a mother and her two sons. Both boys had evidence of CMV infection acquired early in infancy which cleared by the age of 2-3 years. There were no neurodevelopmental sequelae. The natural history of CMV infection in two infants with ALPS was similar to that described in normal children.
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ranking = 0.42857142857143
keywords = apoptosis
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10/33. Investigation of suspected deficient Fas-mediated apoptosis in a father and son.

    BACKGROUND: A 2-year-old boy presented with symptoms consistent with a diagnosis of autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS). His father had been splenectomized at age 12 with similar symptoms. ALPS is a rare hereditary syndrome that may result from a functional defect in Fas-mediated apoptosis. methods: Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and splenic lymphocytes from the patient and PBL from his father and a normal control were analyzed for surface Fas expression. They were then stimulated with an anti-Fas monoclonal antibody (DX2). apoptosis was assayed by flow cytometry at 0, 20, 28, and 34 h. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in expression of Fas (CD95) in the PBL of the patient, his father, or the normal control, or the splenic lymphocytes. Compared with the normal control, the PBL of the patient and his father failed to progress to apoptosis. They also contained a markedly elevated proportion of CD3 CD4-CD8- "double-negative" cells. CONCLUSIONS: PBL from both the patient and his father expressed CD95, but failed to proceed to apoptosis after stimulation, suggesting a functional defect. These results and the clinical presentation are consistent with published descriptions of ALPS.
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