Cases reported "Autoimmune Diseases"

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1/258. Serial brain SPECT images in a case of Sydenham chorea.

    BACKGROUND: The pathophysiological nature of Sydenham chorea (SC) has been presumed to be an autoimmune-mediated inflammatory process. Positron emission tomography in SC has revealed a striatal hypermetabolism that might explain the transient neuronal dysfunction. However, any focal hyperperfusion in the striatum or its related structures has not been demonstrated in previous single photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) imaging studies, which raised a concern about the pathogenesis of the striatal hypermetabolism. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the cerebral perfusion patterns of the subcortical structures by using serial technetium Tc 99m-ethyl cysteinate dimer SPECT in a case of SC, which may provide a clue for the pathophysiological mechanisms. DESIGN: A case report and serial SPECT studies. CASE PRESENTATION: A girl aged 4 years 3 months showed severe generalized choreic movements with concomitant signs of acute pharyngitis. Results of a laboratory study taken 7 days after the onset of chorea showed elevated antistreptolysin O titer, c-reactive protein levels, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Other laboratory data, throat culture, echocardiography, brain magnetic resonance imaging, and electroencephalography did not reveal any abnormalities. Five days after treatment with haloperidol and penicillin, the chorea began to improve slowly, and completely resolved in 2 months. RESULTS: Three serial SPECT images and semiquantitative analysis of cerebral perfusion were obtained. Cerebral perfusion in the striatum and thalamus was markedly increased bilaterally during the stage of active chorea and then returned nearly to its baseline level during the convalescent phase. These cerebral perfusion patterns were concordant with semiquantitative analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Hyperperfusion in both the striatum and thalamus in our patient may reflect the subcortical inflammatory processes in SC. The unequivocal SPECT findings in our patient are difficult to reconcile with the negative findings of previous SPECT studies but may suggest the heterogeneity of the perfusion patterns in SC.
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2/258. Life-threatening bleeding in a case of autoantibody-induced factor vii deficiency.

    A male patient presented with life-threatening bleeding induced by autoantibody-induced factor VII (F.VII) deficiency. This patient had macroscopic hematuria, skin ecchymosis, gastrointestinal bleeding, and a neck hematoma that was causing disturbed respiration. He developed acute renal failure and acute hepatic failure, probably due to obstruction of the ureters and the biliary tract, respectively. Although activated partial thromboplastin time was normal, prothrombin time (PT) was remarkably prolonged at 71.8 seconds compared to 14.0 seconds in a normal control. Both the immunoreactive level of F.VII antigen and the F.VII activity of the patient's plasma samples were < 1.0% of normal. Although an equal part of normal plasma was added to the patient's plasma, PT was not corrected. The patient's plasma inhibited F.VII activity. These findings suggested the presence of a plasma inhibitor for F.VII. After administration of large doses of methylprednisolone, PT was gradually shortened and plasma levels of F.VII increased over time. Bleeding, acute renal failure, and acute hepatic failure improved markedly following the steroid treatment. These observations suggest that life-threatening bleeding can be induced by autoantibody-induced F.VII deficiency and that immunosuppressive therapy using large doses of steroid can be successful in inhibiting the production of the autoantibody.
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3/258. Immune-mediated retinopathy in a patient with stiff-man syndrome.

    BACKGROUND: Stiff-man syndrome is a rare neurological disorder characterised by rigidity and violent spasms of the body musculature. In the majority of patients, presence of antibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), the enzyme synthesizing gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), suggests an autoimmune attack against GABA-ergic inhibitory neurons. We report a 32-year-old patient with stiff-man syndrome and anti-GAD antibodies who developed subacute progressive loss of vision in the right eye, and in the left eye 18 months thereafter. methods: Ophthalmological work-up included electro-retinogram (ERG), visual evoked potentials (VEP) and fluorescein angiography. Antiretinal antibodies were investigated using an indirect immunofluorescence technique on frozen sections of macaque retina with patients serum and FITC-conjugated goat antihuman immunoglobulin. Staining with monoclonal anti-GAD65 antibodies and with serum from three healthy normals served as controls. RESULTS: visual acuity of both eyes decreased to 0.16 within a span of 6 weeks. Perimetry revealed a central scotoma in the visual field of both eyes. VEP and flash ERG were progressively disturbed on the right eye. On the left eye, initially only pattern ERG and photopic responses were abnormal. Follow-up recordings revealed widespread pathology of photopic single and flicker responses. Immunofluorescence revealed strong reactivity of the inner plexiform layer and to a lesser extent staining of the outer plexiform layer at dilutions of 1:1000 with patients serum. The same retinal staining pattern was obtained with monoclonal anti-GAD65 antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest autoimmune retinopathy, mediated by anti-GAD65 autoantibodies as the underlying cause of visual loss.
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4/258. Factor V Leiden and antibodies against phospholipids and protein S in a young woman with recurrent thromboses and abortion.

    We describe the case of a 39-year-old woman who suffered two iliofemoral venous thromboses, a cerebral ischemic infarct and recurrent fetal loss. Initial studies showed high levels of antiphospholipid antibodies (APAs) and a moderate thrombocytopenia. After her second miscarriage, laboratory diagnosis revealed that the woman was heterozygous for the factor V Leiden mutation and had a functional protein s deficiency as well as anti-protein S and anti-beta 2-glycoprotein i antibodies. The impairment of the protein c pathway at various points could well explain the recurrent thromboses in the patient and supports the role of a disturbed protein c system in the pathophysiology of thrombosis in patients with APAs.
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5/258. An inherited disorder of lymphocyte apoptosis: the autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome.

    The autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) affords novel insights into the mechanisms that regulate lymphocyte homeostasis and underlie the development of autoimmunity. This syndrome arises early in childhood in persons who inherit mutations in genes that mediate apoptosis, or programmed cell death. The timely deletion of lymphocytes is a way to prevent their accumulation and the persistence of cells that can react against the body's own antigens. In ALPS, defective lymphocyte apoptosis permits chronic, nonmalignant adenopathy and splenomegaly; the survival of normally uncommon "double-negative" CD3 CD4- CD8- T cells; and the development of autoimmune disease. Most cases of ALPS involve heterozygous mutations in the lymphocyte surface protein Fas that impair a major apoptotic pathway. Detailed immunologic investigations of the cellular and cytokine profiles in ALPS show a prominent skewing toward a T-helper 2 phenotype; this provides a rational explanation for the humoral autoimmunity typical of patients with ALPS. Prospective evaluations of 26 patients and their families show an ever-expanding spectrum of ALPS and its major complications: hypersplenism, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and neutropenia. Defective apoptosis may also contribute to a heightened risk for lymphoma.
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6/258. Increased spontaneous in vitro apoptosis in double negative T cells of humans with a fas/apo-1 mutation.

    We describe a 17 year old patient suffering from Canale-Smith syndrome (CSS) including chronic lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, hypergammaglobulinemia and recurrent Coombs positive hemolytic crises. The parents are not consanguine, all other family members including two brothers are healthy. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells of the patient showed an increased rate of CD3 positive, CD4/CD8 double negative t-lymphocytes. in vitro assays showed these cells to have an increased rate of spontaneous apoptosis. Though expression of Fas/Apo-1 (CD95) and Fas-ligand (FasL) was detected on rna- and protein level we found Fas/Apo-1 mediated apoptosis being significantly reduced. Sequencing of the fas/apo-1 gene proved the patient RT and his father to carry a point mutation at position 804 located in exon 9 (death domain) leading to an amino acid substitution. For developing of CSS, a fas/apo-1 mutation seems to be necessary but not sufficient. An additional independent mechanism must be involved in the pathogenesis of human lpr<-phenotype.
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7/258. Autoimmune enteropathy with distinct mucosal features in T-cell activation deficiency: the contribution of T cells to the mucosal lesion.

    BACKGROUND: Autoimmune enteropathy is normally characterised by crypt hyperplastic villous atrophy with enterocyte autoantibodies, activation of mucosal lymphocytes and increased epithelial HLA-DR. This case involved a severely affected Portuguese infant who was found to have lymphocyte activation deficiency and demonstrated correspondingly distinct mucosal features. methods: A female infant of nonconsanguineous parents was treated for vomiting and diarrhoea, first with milk exclusion and then with parenteral nutrition. lymphocyte subsets and immunoglobulin concentrations were normal, but in vitro testing showed no activation in response to phytohaemagglutinin, candida, or purified protein derivative, although the response to interleukin (IL)-2 was intact. interleukin-2 deficiency was excluded. Analysis of jejunal biopsy specimens revealed only mild villous blunting with absent goblet cells, normal epithelial proliferation, and no crypt hyperplasia. The dense infiltrate of CD8 and CD4 T lymphocytes showed normal CD2 and CD3 expression but no activation or proliferation markers. HLA-DR was not increased on epithelium or lymphocytes. Thus, in addition to in vitro evidence for lymphocyte activation deficiency, the mucosal specimens showed no evidence of in situ T-cell activation. RESULTS: After development of overwhelming septicaemia, the patient died at 18 months, just before a planned bone marrow transplant. CONCLUSIONS: These findings confirm significant heterogeneity within autoimmune enteropathy. Formal immune function testing should be performed in all affected infants to identify T-cell activation deficiencies. The distinct mucosal findings suggest that activated T cells usually induce the crypt hyperplastic villous atrophy characteristic of classic autoimmune enteropathy.
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8/258. autoimmunity and extranodal lymphocytic infiltrates in lymphoproliferative disorders.

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between autoimmunity and extranodal lymphocytic infiltrates in different lymphoproliferative disorders with immunoglobulin alterations. SUBJECTS AND DESIGN: A clinical review combined with a retrospective cohort study of 380 patients, 28 with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, three with common variable immunodeficiency, 147 with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, 57 with Waldenstrom's macroglobulinaemia and 145 with non-Hodgkin's malignant lymphoma. SETTING: A university hospital and The State serum Institute in Copenhagen. INTERVENTION: Clinical examination of each patient with special attention to chronic inflammatory and autoimmune manifestations. Biopsies were taken from non-infectious infiltrates, some of which were additionally tested with PCR analysis for gene rearrangements. Serological screening with a test battery for various autoantibodies was used in combination with techniques for the detection of M-components and monoclonal B-cell proliferation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Clinical and/or serological autoimmune manifestations, M-component and other immunoglobulin alterations, and inflammatory tissue changes were studied in patients with chronic inflammatory, polyclonal or oligoclonal pseudolymphomas and in monoclonal, malignant extranodal lymphomas. RESULTS: In 380 consecutive patients, 49 (12.9%) had extranodal manifestations, of whom 47 also had autoimmune manifestations. Nearly half of the 47 patients had more than one autoimmune manifestation. There was a strong correlation between clinical signs and corresponding autoantibodies such as anti-SSA and -SSB antibodies in sjogren's syndrome (10 cases), antithyroid peroxidase antibodies in thyroiditis and Graves' disease (10 cases), and parietal cell antibodies in gastric ulcers with maltoma (12 cases). Clinical and serological signs of autoimmunity correlated strongly with female sex (34, 72% women; and 13, 28% men) and with immunoglobulin alterations. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge this is the first systematic review of B-lymphoproliferative and autoimmune disorders indicating that pseudolymphoma and malignant lymphomas, including maltomas, may develop in the context of a permanent autoantigenic drive.
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9/258. Defective apoptosis due to a point mutation in the death domain of CD95 associated with autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome, T-cell lymphoma, and Hodgkin's disease.

    apoptosis via CD95 and its ligand is an important mechanism that prevents uncontrolled proliferation of activated lymphocytes and regulates lymphocyte homeostasis. The apoptosis receptor CD95 is a transmembrane protein with an intracellular domain well conserved between CD95 and tumor necrosis factor receptor I, another apoptosis-inducing protein. Because of its functional importance, this domain was designated the death domain. We describe the molecular analysis of the CD95 death domain in a family with autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (Canale-Smith syndrome), T-cell lymphoma, and Hodgkin's disease. A functional defect in apoptosis was detected in cells from the index patient, a 5-year-old girl suffering from Canale-Smith syndrome and a T-cell lymphoma, as well as in her father, who had a history of splenomegaly and mild hemolysis, and her paternal uncle who had been cured of Hodgkin's disease (HD). Expansion of double-negative T cells (CD4-CD8-) was only seen in the index patient. All family members with a functional defect in apoptosis were heterozygous for a point mutation in the death domain of CD95 (A1009G, E256G). We conclude that, within the same family, a defect in apoptosis due to a mutation in the CD95 death domain can be associated with diverse clinical phenotypes, including mild, reversible symptoms and different malignancies.
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10/258. Reversible monoclonal lymphadenopathy in autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome with functional FAS (CD95/APO-1) deficiency.

    The FAS (CD95/APO-1) receptor and its ligand play an important role in the initiation of apoptosis under many physiologic conditions. Loss of function mutations of the FAS gene have been described in lpr mice and in humans with autoimmune phenomena, recurrent lymphadenopathies, and hepatosplenomegaly. This syndrome is now called autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome type I (ALPS I). Recently, patients with similar clinical symptoms due to a functional FAS deficiency without FAS gene mutations have been distinguished. This disease has been termed autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome type II (ALPS II) or autoimmune lymphoproliferative disease (ALD). This report is the first description of the lymph node pathology and immunohistochemistry in a patient with ALPS II. After recurrent bacterial infections, a 4-year-old child developed cervical giant lymphadenopathy suggesting lymphoma. Lymph node histology resembled the findings in Epstein Barr virus-associated posttransplant atypical lymphoproliferations. Confluent sheets of immunoblasts, however, showed a monoclonal expression of IgG/lambda and a monoclonal rearrangement of the JH chain. The same clone was also present in the peripheral blood. Although high-grade lymphoma could not be excluded, the patient's parents insisted on the patient's leaving the hospital with only antibiotic treatment. Surprisingly, the giant lymphadenopathy completely resolved within 7 weeks, and the clone was no longer detectable in the peripheral blood. Twelve months later the patient was still free from lymphoma and was doing well. Retrospectively, transient monoclonal B-cell populations could be identified in an archival frozen blood sample taken when the patient was 3 years old. Increased FAS-independent spontaneous apoptosis was a feature of the patient's lymphocytes and could be the molecular basis for self-elimination of B-cell clones. We conclude that the diagnosis of a FAS-FAS-L deficiency should be considered in children with an otherwise unexplained atypical lymphoproliferation and that a diagnosis of lymphoma in patients with functional FAS deficiency should be made with considerable reservation.
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