Cases reported "Autoimmune Diseases"

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1/109. Autoimmune enteropathy with distinct mucosal features in T-cell activation deficiency: the contribution of T cells to the mucosal lesion.

    BACKGROUND: Autoimmune enteropathy is normally characterised by crypt hyperplastic villous atrophy with enterocyte autoantibodies, activation of mucosal lymphocytes and increased epithelial HLA-DR. This case involved a severely affected Portuguese infant who was found to have lymphocyte activation deficiency and demonstrated correspondingly distinct mucosal features. methods: A female infant of nonconsanguineous parents was treated for vomiting and diarrhoea, first with milk exclusion and then with parenteral nutrition. lymphocyte subsets and immunoglobulin concentrations were normal, but in vitro testing showed no activation in response to phytohaemagglutinin, candida, or purified protein derivative, although the response to interleukin (IL)-2 was intact. interleukin-2 deficiency was excluded. Analysis of jejunal biopsy specimens revealed only mild villous blunting with absent goblet cells, normal epithelial proliferation, and no crypt hyperplasia. The dense infiltrate of CD8 and CD4 T lymphocytes showed normal CD2 and CD3 expression but no activation or proliferation markers. HLA-DR was not increased on epithelium or lymphocytes. Thus, in addition to in vitro evidence for lymphocyte activation deficiency, the mucosal specimens showed no evidence of in situ T-cell activation. RESULTS: After development of overwhelming septicaemia, the patient died at 18 months, just before a planned bone marrow transplant. CONCLUSIONS: These findings confirm significant heterogeneity within autoimmune enteropathy. Formal immune function testing should be performed in all affected infants to identify T-cell activation deficiencies. The distinct mucosal findings suggest that activated T cells usually induce the crypt hyperplastic villous atrophy characteristic of classic autoimmune enteropathy.
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2/109. A fatal case of autoimmune thrombocytopenia with an IgM anti-GPIb/IX following one antigen mismatched unrelated donor bone marrow transplantation.

    We report the case of a 32-year-old patient with ALL who developed autoimmune thrombocytopenia 2 months following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. An IgM autoantibody against the platelet glycoprotein Ib/IX complex was observed. Treatment with high-dose steroids and intravenous immunoglobulin g failed to produce any benefit and the thrombocytopenia led to fatal gastrointestinal haemorrhage. The possible factors contributing to post-allograft thrombocytopenia and potential management strategies are discussed.
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3/109. Spontaneously occurring neutralizing antibodies against granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in patients with autoimmune disease.

    There is increasing evidence that spontaneous anticytokine autoantibodies are associated with chronic infections and autoimmune diseases. We report the sporadic occurrence in autoimmune diseases of such autoantibodies to granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), a cytokine involved in inflammation and the regulation of proliferation, differentiation and function of granulocytic and monocytic cell lineages. In 41 of 425 patients tested, we found low to moderate levels of autoantibodies binding to GM-CSF in serum or plasma. These were most prevalent in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG). However, neutralizing autoantibodies against GM-CSF were very rare, being found in only three patients. Two had autoimmune MG, one with thymoma (Patient A) and the other (Patient B) with 'seronegative' MG, i.e. without the antiacetylcholine receptor autoantibodies characteristic of most MG patients, and a third (Patient D) had multiple sclerosis. Only very limited amounts of Patient A and Patient D serum/plasma were available for analysis and therefore further studies were carried out on the more plentiful samples from Patient B. The anti-GM-CSF autoantibodies of Patient B were predominantly polyclonal immunoglobulin g and strongly neutralized recombinant human (rh) GM-CSF derived from different expression systems. They had similar immunological and immunochemical characteristics to anti-GM-CSF antibodies that developed in immunocompetent colorectal carcinoma patients following (rh)GM-CSF therapy. In serial samples from Patient B, the anti-GM-CSF autoantibodies were undetectable from diagnosis at age 8 years until at least age 13, but then developed spontaneously during (temporary) withdrawal of immunosuppressive treatment. Their neutralizing activity has persisted since their first detection at age 15 years 1 month, and was at its highest level recently at age 17 years 7 months. There was no obvious association with other autoimmune phenomena, nor were any haematological deficiencies overtly manifested, suggesting that any loss of GM-CSF function may have been compensated for by other cytokines.
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keywords = macrophage
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4/109. Erythroblastic synartesis: an auto-immune dyserythropoiesis.

    Erythroblastic synartesis is a rare form of acquired dyserythropoiesis, first described by Breton-Gorius et al in 1973. This syndrome is characterized by the presence of septate-like membrane junctions and "glove finger" invaginations between erythroblasts, which are very tightly linked together. This phenomenon, responsible for ineffective erythropoiesis, leads to an isolated severe anemia with reticulocytopenia. In the following report, we describe 3 new cases of erythroblastic synartesis associated with dysimmunity and monoclonal gammapathy. In all cases, the diagnosis was suggested by characteristic morphological appearance of bone marrow smears, and further confirmed by electron microscopy. Ultrastructural examination of abnormal erythroblast clusters showed that these cells were closely approximated with characteristic intercellular membrane junctions. The pathogenesis of the dyserythropoiesis was modeled in vitro using crossed erythroblast cultures and immunoelectron microscopy: when cultured in the presence of autologous serum, the erythroblasts from the patients displayed synartesis, whereas these disappeared when cultured in normal serum. Moreover, synartesis of normal erythroblasts were induced by the patient IgG fraction. Immunogold labeling showed that the monoclonal IgG were detected in, and restricted to, the synartesis. A discrete monoclonal plasmacytosis was also found in the patient bone marrow. The adhesion receptor CD36 appeared to be concentrated in the junctions, suggesting that it might be involved in the synartesis. These experiments indicated that a monoclonal serum immunoglobulin (IgG in the present cases) directed at erythroblast membrane antigen was responsible for the erythroblast abnormalities. Specific therapy of the underlying lymphoproliferation was followed by complete remission of the anemia in these cases.
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5/109. Identification of new Fas mutations in a patient with autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) and eosinophilia.

    autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a rare, newly recognized, chronic lymphoproliferative disorder in children and is characterized by lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, pancytopenia, autoimmune phenomena and expansion of double-negative (DN) T lymphocytes (TCR alpha beta , CD4-, CD8-). Defective lymphocyte apoptosis caused by mutations of the Fas (CD95) gene has been linked in the pathogenesis of ALPS, as binding of Fas-ligand to Fas can trigger apoptosis. Of the ALPS cases reported to date, point mutations, frameshifts and silent mutations in Fas all have been identified. We report two new point mutations in Fas in a child with ALPS and eosinophilia; studies on other family members established the pattern of inheritance for these mutations. Flow cytometric analysis of blood and tissues (spleen, lymph node, bone marrow) revealed abnormally expanded populations of DN T lymphocytes. Furthermore, activated lymphocytes and IFN gamma-activated eosinophils were resistant to Fas-mediated apoptosis. Eosinophil resistance to Fas-mediated apoptosis has not been previously described in ALPS. Sequencing of Fas revealed two separate mutations not previously reported. One mutation, a C to T change at base 836, was a silent mutation inherited from the mother, while the second mutation, a C to A change at base 916, caused a non-conservative amino acid substitution in the death domain of Fas, changing a threonine to a lysine. This mutation is associated with a predicted change in the structure of a part of the death domain from a beta-pleated sheet to an alpha-helix. We speculate that the mutation in the death domain prevents the interaction of Fas with intracellular mediators of apoptosis and is responsible for the autoimmune manifestations of ALPS and the abnormal lymphocytosis and eosinophilia in this patient.
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6/109. adoptive transfer of vitiligo after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    vitiligo developed in a 50-year-old man 9 months after allogeneic transplantation from his HLA-identical sister who had had this disease for several years. Our findings suggest adoptive transfer of vitiligo by haematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and lend support to the autoimmune nature of this disease.
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7/109. guillain-barre syndrome occurring in two women after ketoacidosic comatose state disclosing an insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    We report two women who presented with a guillain-barre syndrome just after a ketoacidosic comatose state disclosing an insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. One had characteristic clinical signs and the other had major motor involvement. At neurophysiologic investigations, one had typical demyelinating neuropathy whereas the second had mainly axonal degeneration. At ultrastructural examination of a peripheral nerve biopsy, features of macrophage-associated demyelination were present in both nerve specimens, thus confirming the diagnosis of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, i.e., guillain-barre syndrome. Prominent axonal involvement was also present in the motor nerves of the second patient. insulin therapy had to be permanently continued and these two cases are quite different from the transient diabetes sometimes observed in certain cases of guillain-barre syndrome. Both the latter and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus probably have auto-immune mechanisms. It is likely that in our two patients both auto-immune diseases were triggered by a common event. Such cases of guillain-barre syndrome have to be distinguished from other acute diabetic neuropathies.
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8/109. Coexistent lymphoid interstitial pneumonia, pernicious anemia, and agammaglobulinemia.

    immunologic factors have been incriminated in the pathogenesis of lymphoid interstitial pneumonia. The discovery of a patient with coexistent lymphoid interestitial pneumonia, pernicious anemia, and common variable hypogammaglobulinemia focused attention on the possible autoimmune nature of this pulmonary disease. Extensive immunologic studies demonstrated a noticeably impaired bonemarrow-dependent (B cell) system and intact thymus-dependent (T cell) system. No evidence of humoral or cellular hypersensitivity to homologous lung determinants was found.
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9/109. Resolution of psoriasis after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for chronic myelogenous leukemia: late complications of therapy.

    Treatment of autoimmune disease with bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is under investigation. A few reports of patients undergoing allogeneic BMT for malignant conditions observed the resolution of psoriasis after BMT, with minimal late morbidity. We describe a patient with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) whose psoriasis resolved completely after allogeneic BMT. However, the patient's course was complicated by extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), recurrent serious infections, poor performance status and quality of life, and severe disability. The patient died 887 days post transplant due to infectious complications. The potential benefits and risks of treatment of autoimmune diseases with allogeneic BMT are discussed.
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10/109. Chronic autoimmune thrombopenia/neutropenia in a boy with persistent parvovirus B19 infection.

    OBJECTIVE: We report an 11-year-old boy presenting with splenomegaly, chronic thrombocytopenia and concordant neutropenia. RESULTS: In contrast to autoantibodies against platelets, there were no detectable neutrophil-specific autoantibodies present in this patient. Extensive serologic investigations revealed increased IgM- and IgG-antibody titers against parvovirus B19. A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) showed parvovirus B19-specific sequences in the patient's bone-marrow cells but not in the serum. Specific antibodies against the structural proteins VP1 and VP2 in addition to those against non-structural protein NS1 of parvovirus B19 were detected by Western blot analysis. thrombocytopenia and neutropenia responded to immunosuppressive therapy and subsequent splenectomy, the latter being necessary due to severe side-effects of steroid medication. CONCLUSION: Autoimmune thrombocytopenia/neutropenia may have been triggered and/or sustained by a chronic parvovirus B19 infection. patients with this very rare disorder should be screened for this virus.
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