Cases reported "Autoimmune Diseases"

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1/80. A case of autoimmune hypophysitis associated with asymptomatic primary biliary cirrhosis.

    We report a 61-year old male patient with panhypopituitarism complicated with asymptomatic primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated high intensity of the anterior pituitary gland. There was no mass lesion or enlargement of the pituitary gland or the stalk. Immunoblot analysis of the patient's sera with rat pituitary antigens revealed a band with a molecular size of 22 kD. Anti-M2 mitochondrial antibody has been consistently positive for five years. liver biopsy revealed portal hepatitis with periportal infiltration of the inflammatory cells. This is the first case report of autoimmune hypophysitis complicated with asymptomatic PBC.
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2/80. Unusual association of thyroiditis, Addison's disease, ovarian failure and celiac disease in a young woman.

    The coexistence of autoimmune endocrine diseases, particularly autoimmune thyroid disease and celiac disease (CD), has recently been reported. We here present a 23-year-old woman with a diagnosis of hypothyroidism due to Hashimoto's thyroiditis, autoimmune Addison's disease, and kariotypically normal spontaneous premature ovarian failure. Considering the close association between autoimmune diseases and CD, we decided to search for IgA anti-endomysium antibodies (EmA) in the serum. The positivity of EmA and the presence of total villous atrophy at jejunal biopsy allowed the diagnosis of CD. On a gluten-free diet the patient showed a marked clinical improvement accompanied, over a 3-month period, by a progressive decrease in the need for thyroid and adrenal replacement therapies. After 6 months, serum EmA became negative and after 12 months a new jejunal biopsy showed complete mucosal recovery. After 18 months on gluten-free diet, the anti-thyroid antibodies titre decreased significantly, and we could discontinue thyroid substitutive therapy. This case emphasizes the association between autoimmune polyglandular disease and CD; the precocious identification of these cases is clinically relevant not only for the high risk of complications (e.g. lymphoma) inherent to untreated CD, but also because CD is one of the causes for the failure of substitute hormonal therapy in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease.
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3/80. Multicentric warfarin-induced skin necrosis complicating heparin-induced thrombocytopenia.

    Two patients developed catastrophic multicentric skin necrosis while receiving warfarin to treat venous thromboembolism complicated by immune-mediated heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). Patient 1 developed skin necrosis involving the breasts, thighs, and face, as well as venous limb gangrene and bilateral hemorrhagic necrosis of the adrenal glands, resulting in death. The second patient developed bilateral mammary necrosis necessitating mastectomies, as well as skin necrosis involving the thigh. Neither patient had an identifiable hypercoagulable syndrome, other than HIT. HIT may represent a risk factor for the development of multicentric warfarin-induced skin necrosis (WISN).
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4/80. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma followed by plasmacytoma, both arising in A thyroid gland with Hashimoto's disease.

    We describe here a rare case of malignant lymphoma followed by plasmacytoma in Hashimoto's thyroiditis. The patient developed malignant lymphoma (small, non-cleaved cell, and non Burkitt's type by Working Formulation classification), and remained in remission for 2 years after receiving combination chemotherapy, and then developed plasmacytoma in the same lesion. Rearrangement bands for IgH from both specimens showed different bands, indicating that both were of monoclonal type but of a different clonal origin. Considering the clinical course in this case, thyroidectomy may be indicated for lymphoproliferative diseases in Hashimoto's thyroiditis treated with chemotherapy.
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5/80. gastric mucosa as an additional extrahepatic localization of hepatitis c virus: viral detection in gastric low-grade lymphoma associated with autoimmune disease and in chronic gastritis.

    The hepatitis c virus (HCV) has been linked to B-cell lymphoproliferation and autoimmunity, and has been localized in several tissues. The clinical observation of an HCV-infected patient with sjogren's syndrome (SS) and helicobacter pylori (HP) positive gastric low-grade B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), which did not regress after HP eradication, led us to investigate the possible localization of HVC in the gastric microenvironment. HCV genome and antigens were searched in gastric biopsy specimens from the previously mentioned case, as well as from 9 additional HCV-infected patients (8 with chronic gastritis and 1 with gastric low-grade B-cell NHL). HCV-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry procedures were used. The gastric B-cell NHL from the patient with SS was characterized by molecular analyses of B-cell clonality. HCV rna was detected in both the gastric low-grade B-cell NHL and in 3 out of 6 gastric samples from the remaining cases. HCV antigens were detected in the residual glandular cells within the gastric B-cell NHL lesions, in glandular cells from 2 of the 3 additional gastric lesions that were HCV positive by PCR, and in 1 additional chronic gastritis sample in which HCV-rna studies could not be performed. By molecular analyses, of immunoglobulin genes, the B-cell NHL from the patient with SS was confirmed to be a primary gastric lymphoma, subjected to ongoing antigenic stimulation and showing a significant similarity with rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-HCV- antibody sequences. Our results show that HCV can localize in the gastric mucosa.
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6/80. Immunological similarities between primary sclerosing cholangitis and chronic sclerosing sialadenitis: report of the overlapping of these two autoimmune diseases.

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is characterized by destructive inflammation and fibrosis affecting the bile ducts. The etiology of PSC is still unknown, although lymphocytic infiltration in the portal areas suggests an immune-mediated destruction of the bile ducts. patients with one autoimmune disease often suffer from one or more other autoimmune diseases. It is well known that there is a close relationship between PSC and inflammatory bowel disease, particularly ulcerative colitis(UC). However, the pathological findings in UC and other overlap diseases do not resemble those of PSC. In the present study, we report a patient with chronic sclerosing sialadenitis (Kuttner's tumor) and PSC. It is compared the sclerosing changes in both salivary glands and bile ducts histologically. In addition, the expression pattern of mast cell tryptase, b-FGF, and HLA-DR were examined in both tissues immunohistochemically. Histological features of sclerosing change in both salivary and bile ducts were quite similar. Marked mast cell infiltration and b-FGF expression were seen in the sclerosing areas in both tissues. In active inflammatory areas of the salivary glands, HLA-DR expression was also seen. We hypothesized that similar immune reactions occur in both the salivary gland and bile ducts and are responsible for the fibrosis that follows.
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7/80. Basedow's disease and chronic ulcerative colitis: a case report and review of the Japanese literature.

    A case of Basedow's disease, that developed after successful treatment of ulcerative colitis with a total colectomy, is presented, along with a review of the Japanese literature on the coexistence of hyperthyroidism and ulcerative colitis. A 26-year-old man was referred to our department, complaining of general fatigue, appetite loss, and palpitation. At age 14, blood was discovered in his stool and a diagnosis of ulcerative colitis was made. Since then, he has been treated with salazosulfapyridine and prednisolone. On examination, mild exophthalmos and thyroid swelling were observed. Both serum free T3 and T4 levels were increased along with a positive TSH receptor antibody, while TSH was decreased. Scintigraphic and ultrasonographic examinations of the thyroid gland showed diffuse enlargement. Treatment with thiamazole relieved the symptoms and normalized the thyroid function. Although a high incidence of autoimmune thyroid diseases in association with ulcerative colitis has been suggested, only 6 cases of hyperthyroidism coexisting with ulcerative colitis have been reported in japan. A common immunological process has been suggested to be implicated in the pathogenesis of this association, however, the exact mechanism remains unclear.
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8/80. A case of isolated ACTH deficiency who developed autoimmune-mediated hypothyroidism and impaired water diuresis during glucocorticoid replacement therapy.

    A case of isolated ACTH deficiency who developed autoimmune-mediated hypothyroidism and still showed impaired water diuresis during glucocorticoid replacement therapy is reported. A 45-year-old woman was initially admitted for nausea, vomiting, and general malaise. Her serum sodium and plasma osmolality, ACTH and cortisol values were low, but her urine osmolality was high. Other pituitary hormone levels, thyroid hormone levels, and a computed tomogram of the pituitary gland were normal. The patient was treated with hydrocortisone and followed in the outpatient clinic; however, she was lost to follow up 18 months after admission. Three years later she presented with hypoglycemia and hyponatremia. Her serum or plasma ACTH, FT3, FT4, cortisol levels were low and her serum TSH level was high. Pituitary stimulation tests revealed a blunted response of ACTH to CRH and an exaggerated response of TSH to TRH. Plasma ADH was inappropriately high, and a water-loading test revealed impaired water diuresis and poor suppression of ADH. Although ADH was suppressed, impaired water diuresis was observed in the water loading test after hydrocortisone supplementation. thyroxine supplementation completely normalized the water diuresis. Her outpatient clinic medical records revealed a gradual increase in TSH levels during follow up, indicating that she had developed hypothyroidism during glucocorticoid replacement therapy. The hyponatremia on the first admission was due to glucocorticoid deficiency, whereas the hyponatremia on the second admission was due to combined deficiencies of glucocorticoid and thyroid hormones.
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9/80. Macroamylasemia attributable to gluten-related amylase autoantibodies: a case report.

    BACKGROUND: Macroamylasemia (MA) is a benign condition caused by circulating macroamylase complexes of pancreatic or salivary amylase bound to plasma proteins, which cannot be cleared by the renal glomeruli. In most cases, the macromolecular amylase represents a complex of normal amylase and either immunoglobulin a or G and may be a specific antigen-antibody complex. celiac disease (CD) is a permanent intolerance to ingested gluten that results in immunologically mediated inflammatory damage of the small intestinal mucosa. Several recent population-based serologic surveys have shown CD to be a common disorder, possibly affecting 1 in 200 to 250 individuals in most countries studied, including the united states, where overt CD is rare, indicating a high proportion of subclinical disease. The diagnosis of CD currently rests on the histological demonstration of the characteristic lesion in the small intestine and the subsequent clinical response to the introduction of a gluten-free diet. MA associated with CD has been described in adult patients, and in a few cases, MA decreased or resolved after a strict gluten-free diet. A few single cases of MA have been described in childhood, but no association with CD has been reported so far. We report a girl with CD, autoimmune thyroiditis, and MA, in whom CD-related antibodies to amylase and to exocrine pancreas tissue resolved with a gluten-free diet. CASE REPORT: An 11-year-old girl was referred for chronic abdominal pain and growth retardation associated with persistent hyperamylasemia and suspected chronic pancreatitis. We confirmed elevated serum amylase, normal serum lipase, and very low 24-hour urine amylase and amylase clearance/creatinine clearance ratio, consistent with MA. serologic tests for CD were positive, and the diagnosis was confirmed by small bowel biopsy showing subtotal villous atrophy. thyroid function tests showed a pronounced hypothyroidism, associated with high titers of thyroid microsomal and thyroglobulin antibodies. Screening for other autoantibodies-including antinuclear, islet cell, glutamic acid decarboxylase, protein tyrosine phosphatase islet antigen 512, adrenal gland, and cytoplasmic neutrophil granulocyte antibodies-was negative. A diagnosis of CD, MA, and hypothyroidism attributable to autoimmune thyroiditis was made. A gluten-free diet and oral replacement with L-thyroxine was started with clinical improvement. serum amylase and amylase clearance/creatinine clearance ratio normalized, consistent with resolution of MA. STUDY DESIGN AND methods: The patient's serum samples were obtained at the time of CD diagnosis and at 3 and 12 months after instituting a gluten-free diet. serum samples from 10 consecutive untreated celiac children were disease controls, and 39 participants with no gastrointestinal symptoms and no family history of CD served as healthy controls. The origin of MA as determined by complexes of amylase with circulating immunoglobulins was tested by the measurement of amylase on supernatants after precipitation of immune complexes with either protein A sepharose or polyethylene glycol. The precipitation of >60% of amylase activity was consistent with the presence of MA. immunoglobulin g (IgG) and immunoglobulin a (IgA) circulating autoantibodies to amylase were measured using recently developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), using porcine amylase as antigen. Results were expressed as arbitrary units (AUs). Statistical analysis was performed by Student's t test for unpaired data. IgA and IgG antibodies to exocrine pancreas tissue were detected by indirect immunofluorescence on human pancreas cryosections. RESULTS: serum immunoprecipitation with either protein A sepharose or polyethylene glycol reduced amylase activity from 1698 to 89 U/L (94.8%) and to 75 U/L (95.6%), with only marginal reduction in control serum samples. The ELISA for autoantibodies to amylase detected high values, both IgA (3531 AU) and IgG (1855 AU), in the serum sample from the patient at CD diagnosis. IgA autoantibodies (mean /- standard deviation) were 3.4 /- 2.5 AU in healthy controls, and 2.1 /- 1.2 AU in celiac controls; IgG autoantibodies were 10 /- 4.8 AU in healthy controls and 8.5 /- 3.2 AU, respectively. autoantibodies to exocrine pancreas tissue were documented in patient sera at the time of CD diagnosis, both IgA and IgG, but not in control groups. Preincubation of patient's serum with excess of alpha-amylase specifically inhibited antibody binding to coated amylase in the ELISA, and partially inhibited immunoreactivity to exocrine pancreas. autoantibodies to alpha-amylase and to exocrine pancreas declined in CD patients after institution of a gluten-free diet. CONCLUSIONS: Few cases of MA have been described in children, and in all amylase determination was part of the clinical investigation for abdominal pain or trauma. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED)
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10/80. Inflammatory pseudotumor of the submandibular gland: report of a case presenting with autoimmune disease-like clinical manifestations.

    We report a rare case of inflammatory pseudotumor arising in the submandibular gland, which presented with autoimmune disease-like clinical manifestations. A 70-year-old Japanese man developed masses in both submandibular regions. Laboratory tests revealed polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia, high titers of antinuclear antibody, and a positive thyroid test. Histologically, the lesion was composed of multiple nodules separated by thick fibrous bands and contained a few atrophic lymphoid follicles and residual ductal structures. At higher magnification, the nodules contained numerous mature plasma cells mixed with myofibroblasts, lymphocytes, and histiocytes. Occasionally, the myofibroblasts were arranged in poorly formed fascicles and in a storiform pattern. polymerase chain reaction analysis failed to demonstrated the rearrangement of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene. The patient was free of disease after 72 months follow-up. Marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type arising from salivary glands occasionally showed prominent plasma cell differentiation. The present case indicates that inflammatory pseudotumor should be added to the list of different diagnoses for mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue-type lymphoma of the salivary glands.
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