Cases reported "Babesiosis"

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1/73. A cluster of transfusion-associated babesiosis cases traced to a single asymptomatic donor.

    CONTEXT: The risk of acquiring babesiosis by blood transfusion is largely unknown since in areas where it is endemic it is often an asymptomatic infection. OBJECTIVE: To investigate and treat a cluster of blood transfusion-associated babesiosis cases. DESIGN: Case series and epidemiologic investigation. SETTING: Urban inner-city hospital. patients: Six persons who received babesia microti-infected blood components from a donor. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: diagnosis and successful therapy of babesiosis following transfusion. RESULTS: Six individuals (1 adult, 1 child, and 4 neonates) were exposed to products from a single blood donation by an asymptomatic Babesia-infected donor. Three of the 6 exposed patients became parasitemic. polymerase chain reaction testing, animal inoculation studies, and indirect immunofluorescent antibody testing were used to confirm the presence of babesia microti in the donor's blood and to establish the presence of infection in 3 of the 6 recipients. The 3 infected recipients and 1 additional recipient were treated without incident. CONCLUSION: physicians should consider babesiosis in the differential diagnosis of a febrile hemolytic disorder after blood transfusion. Prompt diagnosis is important since babesiosis is responsive to antibiotic therapy and, untreated, can be a fatal disease in certain risk groups. ( info)

2/73. Southern extension of the range of human babesiosis in the eastern united states.

    We sought evidence of babesiosis in three residents of new jersey who were suspected of local acquisition of babesia microti infection. We tested serial blood samples from these residents for B. microti antibodies and amplifiable dna by using immunofluorescent antibody and PCR techniques. All three residents experienced symptoms suggestive of acute babesiosis. The sera of each of the patients reacted against babesial antigen at a titer fourfold or higher in sequentially collected blood samples. PCR-amplifiable dna, characteristic of B. microti, was detected in their blood. These data suggest that human B. microti infections were acquired recently in new jersey, extending the range of this piroplasmosis in the northeastern united states. ( info)

3/73. Presumptive Babesia ovis infection in a spanish ibex (Capra pyrenaica).

    On December 29 1995, a 13-year old, male Spanish ibex was easily captured by hand, with depression, weakness and severe tick infestation, mainly in the periocular and auricular regions. Blood and serum samples were collected and haematological analysis and serum iron levels were determined. Red blood cell count, haematocrit, haemoglobin concentration and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were decreased and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) increased (macrocytic-hypochromic anemia). serum iron and transferrin saturation were decreased and total and unbound iron-binding capacity were increased. Piroplasms were observed within parasitized erythrocytes and presumptively identified as Babesia spp. ticks were identified exclusively as Ripicephalus bursa. The animal was treated with imidocarb but died after 15 days of capture. Histopathological examination revealed congestion of pulmonary capillaries and spleen, glomerulonephritis, hemoglobinuric nephrosis and generalized hemosiderosis. An indirect fluorescent antibody test was performed using a Babesia ovis isolate of ovine origin as antigen and the animal was positive with a titre of 1:640. ( info)

4/73. Human babesiosis: a case study.

    babesiosis is an intraerythrocytic parasitic infection caused by protozoa of the genus Babesia and transmitted by the ixodes dammini tick, which also transmits lyme disease. babesiosis is emerging as an illness of public health significance in the united states. Occurrences of babesiosis infections have been reported during spring, summer, and fall in coastal areas in the northeastern united states. Asymptomatic patients may need only supportive care, whereas asplenic, elderly, and immunocompromised patients are at greatest risk for severe disease. However, overall mortality rates for symptomatic cases are less than 10%. This article presents a case report on a white male in his 70s diagnosed with human babesiosis and emphasizes the need for early detection and prompt interventions to minimize the sequelae related to this tick-borne disease. ( info)

5/73. Transfusion-associated transmission of babesiosis in new york State.

    BACKGROUND: babesiosis can be life-threatening in immunocompromised individuals. Although the disease is usually transmitted by tick bite, more than 20 cases have been reported of infection transmitted by transfusion of blood or blood components obtained from apparently healthy donors from endemic areas in the united states. This report describes several recent cases of transfusion-transmitted babesiosis in new york State. STUDY DESIGN AND methods: Transfusion-associated incidents of babesiosis infection were identified and investigated. Seroprevalence of babesiosis in healthy blood donors in a highly endemic area was ascertained. RESULTS: In three incidents, babesiosis was diagnosed in five of eight patients given infected blood: two premature infants, an elderly patient with gastrointestinal bleeding, and two patients with thalassemia. Seroprevalence in blood donors on Shelter Island (Suffolk County, eastern Long Island), a highly endemic area, was 4.3 percent in May 1998. CONCLUSIONS: Infected donors lived in endemic areas and were asymptomatic with no history of tick bite. Blood collected in January 1997 from one donor was infectious. Those transfusion recipients who were infected were neonatal, elderly, or chronically transfused patients. babesiosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of febrile illness in immunocompromised recipients of blood transfusion, particularly in the Northeastern united states. ( info)

6/73. Fulminant babesiosis treated with clindamycin, quinine, and whole-blood exchange transfusion.

    BACKGROUND: babesiosis is an increasingly recognized parasitic infection with manifestations that range from a subclinical or mild flu-like illness to life-threatening disease. risk factors that may be associated with a more severe clinical course include immunosuppression, splenectomy, and advanced age. The most effective chemotherapeutic regimen, clindamycin plus quinine, is sometimes ineffective in cases of severe disease. CASE REPORT: A previously healthy, 58-year-old man was infected by babesia microti, presumably through a tick bite. He developed fulminant disease characterized by severe hemolytic anemia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, acute renal failure, and respiratory failure. There was no history of splenectomy or immunodeficiency. He was given oral clindamycin (300 mg/4x/day) 2 days before admission. Oral quinine (650 mg/3x/day) was added upon hospitalization. There was no clinical improvement despite antibiotic therapy with clindamycin and quinine. On the second hospital day, a whole-blood exchange transfusion was performed to simultaneously lower the parasite load and replace the patient's plasma. With an automated blood cell separator, 87 percent of the patient's total blood volume was exchanged. As replacement fluid, 6.7 L of packed RBCs reconstituted with FFP (average Hct, 33%) was used. The patient's Hct increased from 26.9 percent before the exchange to 28.3 percent after the exchange. The percentage of parasitized RBCs decreased from 13.8 percent just before exchange to 4.2 percent immediately after exchange. There was rapid clinical improvement after the whole-blood exchange transfusion. The patient's subsequent clinical course was marked by a disappearance of the parasitemia and continued slow, general improvement. Therapy with clindamycin was continued for 14 days after the exchange transfusion and quinine for 17 days. CONCLUSION: In cases of severe babesiosis, prompt institution of whole-blood exchange transfusion, in combination with appropriate antimicrobial therapy, can be life-saving. ( info)

7/73. babesiosis in a renal transplant recipient acquired through blood transfusion.

    BACKGROUND: The success of organ-replacement therapies has resulted in a population of chronically immunosuppressed but active people who experience increased vulnerability to tick-borne zoonoses. Several of these infections may be life threatening. Human babesiosis is an emerging zoonosis that is transmitted by the same tick that transmits lyme disease and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis. methods: We briefly review these zoonoses and present a case of a renal transplant recipient who survived infection by babesia microti contracted through blood transfusion. RESULTS: A recipient of a living-related renal transplant developed acute postoperative hemolytic anemia. The etiology of this anemia was diagnosed by peripheral red blood cell smear as babesia microti. The patient was managed by a reduction in transplant immunosuppressive therapy and administration of clindamycin and quinine antimicrobials. CONCLUSIONS: Transplant patients may contract babesiosis after tick exposure and/or via blood transfusion. The diagnosis of babesiosis may be confused with malaria and should be included in the differential diagnosis of posttransplant hemolytic-uremic syndrome in organ transplant patients. ( info)

8/73. babesiosis.

    A case of human babesiosis is presented. This case emphasizes the need to consider tick-borne disease in anyone who presents with prolonged and undulating fevers, chills, headache, myalgias, and arthralgias. This holds true particularly in areas endemic for tick-borne diseases, even in the absence of a history of tick bite. These symptoms, associated with signs of intravascular hemolysis, thrombocytopenia, and renal insufficiency in a patient who resides in, or with recent travel to, the Northeastern united states, strongly suggest a diagnosis of babesiosis. ( info)

9/73. Concurrent babesiosis and ehrlichiosis in an elderly host.

    An 85-year-old man, actively infected with babesia microti and ehrlichia chaffeensis, presented with fatigue and thrombocytopenia. He developed rhabdomyolysis and multiple organ failure, which led to death 6 days after initial presentation. To our knowledge, concurrent acute disease due to these 2 organisms has not been reported previously, although serologic studies have shown that some patients acquire both infections in life. ( info)

10/73. Transfusion-transmitted babesiosis in ontario: first reported case in canada.

    babesiosis has only recently been reported in canada, but a number of transfusion-transmitted cases of this infection have been reported from the united states. We present a case of transfusion-transmitted babesiosis that occurred in canada. Canadian physicians must consider babesiosis in the differential diagnosis of patients who experience fever or a hemolytic reaction after blood transfusion. Prompt recognition and treatment are important, because Babesia infections can be severe or fatal in certain risk groups. Better strategies to prevent transfusion-transmitted babesiosis are required. ( info)
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