Cases reported "Back Pain"

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1/75. The longer term effect of pulsed radiofrequency for neuropathic pain.

    pulse radiofrequency has been recently described as a technique to apply a relatively high voltage near a nerve but without the usual effects of a rise in temperature or subsequent nerve injury. In this set of case reports, the effect of pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) is described in patients with neuropathic pain syndromes which have been poorly controlled with other oral and invasive treatments. Whilst anecdotal, the results have been remarkable and should encourage further research into this technique. Observations from the basic science tend to support the concept that PRF may induce some sort of long-term depression in the spinal cord.
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2/75. iliac artery pseudoaneurysm following renal transplantation presenting as lumbosacral plexopathy.

    A renal transplant patient developed chronic and progressive back and lower extremity pain followed by foot weakness. The correct diagnosis of lumbosacral plexopathy was made after electromyography and nerve conduction studies and the etiology of radiculopathy due to nerve root compression was excluded. This prompted further investigations that led to the discovery of a large internal iliac artery pseudoaneurysm. We emphasize the use of electrodiagnostic studies to investigate patients with back and limb pain for correctly localizing responsible pathology. In this case a potentially lethal situation was correctly identified in a transplant patient.
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3/75. back pain and collapse associated with receding subarachnoid blockade.

    PURPOSE: back pain and sudden loss of consciousness during recovery from spinal anesthesia are rare. Severe pain may raise fears of serious neurological damage and result in inappropriate management. Bladder distention may present in this way and clinicians should be alert to this possibility and communicate this to nursing staff. CLINICAL FEATURES: A lumbar spinal anesthetic was performed during a volunteer study, using 15 mg hyperbaric bupivacaine in a healthy 31 yr old man. During recovery, five hours later, as the block regressed to the L1-2 level, he complained of acute, severe back pain and briefly lost consciousness secondary to profound bradycardia. Bladder cathetherization yielded 900 mL urine with immediate and complete relief of symptoms. CONCLUSION: Severe pain secondary to bladder overdistention in the presence of neuroaxial blockade may be referred to the thoracolumbar area, mediated by intact sympathetic afferents. As the saccral parasympathetic supply remains paralyzed, there is no subjective sensation of bladder stretching. If untreated, bladder distention can lead to excessive supraspinal parasympathetic outflow resulting in vasovagal syncope.
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4/75. Symptomatic ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the lumbar spine. Case report.

    The authors report a case of focal ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) behind the L-3 vertebral body. This is relatively rare among previously reported cases in the literature. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed that the ossifying portion of the PLL was impinging on the left L-3 nerve root. Contrast enhancing hypertrophic PLL was also demonstrated around the ossification and along the lumbosacral PLL. Via a laminectomy and wide excision of the PLL the lesion was removed. Pathological examination revealed a nodule composed of fibrous cartilage, lamina bone, and mature fat marrow. Enchondral ossification could be identified under a microscope. The authors believe that preoperative MR imaging evaluation is important for the detection of the relationship between an OPLL and the neural structure. Excision of the symptomatic OPLL should be performed when needed to obtain adequate nerve root decompression.
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5/75. Lumbar disc herniation in a 27-month-old child. Case report.

    The occurrence of disc herniation is rare in children. A 27-month-old child fell from his cradle and developed, in the following 2 weeks, irritability, low-back pain, and difficulty in walking. On physical examination a compensatory gait, paravertebral muscle spasm, and a restricted right straight-leg raising test were demonstrated. Plain x-ray films revealed a narrowed L4-5 intervertebral space. magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbosacral spine demonstrated decreased signal in the L4-5 disc, with posterior disc protrusion. At surgery, blood infiltrating the subperiosteal plane was observed. Via a left hemilaminectomy and under microscopic magnification, the left L-5 nerve root was found to be intact, and on the right side significant nerve root compression was identified. During dissection an accidental dural tear occurred. A right L-4 hemilaminectomy was performed, and the disc fragments were removed until a complete nerve root decompression was obtained and the dura was repaired. The child recovered uneventfully and was asymptomatic 7 years postsurgery. This child is one of the youngest patients with a herniated disc reported in the world literature. The authors discuss the diagnostic difficulties and management of this entity in children.
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6/75. Cranial nerve palsy and intracranial subdural hematoma following implantation of intrathecal drug delivery device.

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Complications related to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak and low CSF pressure can occur following placement of an intrathecal drug delivery device. methods: A 58-year-old man with chronic, intractable lower back pain underwent implantation of an intrathecal drug delivery device. On the fourth postoperative day, he developed a postural headache and diplopia with findings compatible with left sixth cranial nerve palsy. The headache subsequently became constant and nonpostural. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging was obtained that showed the presence of a posterior subdural intracranial hematoma. Conservative treatment for postdural puncture headache did not improve the symptomatology. Therefore, an epidural blood patch was performed that produced rapid improvement and eventual resolution of symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Intrathecal catheter implantation can result in CSF loss that might not resolve promptly with conservative therapy. In this case, epidural blood patch proved to be a safe and effective form of treatment.
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7/75. Neurophysiologic response to intraoperative lumbosacral spinal manipulation.

    BACKGROUND: Although the mechanisms of spinal manipulation are poorly understood, the clinical effects are thought to be related to mechanical, neurophysiologic, and reflexogenic processes. Animal studies have identified mechanosensitive afferents in animals, and clinical studies in human beings have measured neuromuscular responses to spinal manipulation. Few, if any, studies have identified the basic neurophysiologic mechanisms of spinal manipulation in human beings or animals. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this clinical investigation was to determine the feasibility of obtaining intraoperative neurophysiologic recordings and to quantify mixed-nerve root action potentials in response to lumbosacral spinal manipulation in a human subject undergoing lumbar spinal surgery. methods: An L4-L5 laminectomy was performed in a 62-year-old man. Short-duration (<0.1 ms) mechanical force, manually assisted spinal manipulative thrusts (150 N) were delivered to the lumbosacral spine with an Activator II Adjusting Instrument. With the spine exposed, spinal manipulative thrusts were delivered internally to the L5 mammillary process, L5-S1 joint, and the sacral base with various force vectors. This protocol was repeated by contacting the skin overlying respective anatomic landmarks. Mixed-nerve root recordings were obtained from gas-sterilized platinum bipolar hooked electrodes attached to the S1 nerve root at the level of the dorsal root ganglion during the spinal manipulative thrusts and during a 30-second baseline period during which no spinal manipulative thrusts were applied. RESULTS: During the active trials, mixed-nerve root action potentials were observed in response to both internal and external spinal manipulative thrusts. Differences in the amplitude and discharge frequency were noted in response to varying segmental contact points and force vectors, and similarities were noted for internally and externally applied spinal manipulative thrusts. Amplitudes of mixed-nerve root action potentials ranged from 200 to 2600 mV for internal thrusts and 800 to 3500 mV for external thrusts. CONCLUSIONS: Monitoring mixed-nerve root discharges in response to spinal manipulative thrusts in vivo in human subjects undergoing lumbar surgery is feasible. Neurophysiologic responses appeared sensitive to the contact point and applied force vector of the spinal manipulative thrust. Further study of the neurophysiologic mechanisms of spinal manipulation in humans and animals is needed to more precisely identify the mechanisms and neural pathways involved.
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8/75. spinal cord stimulation for treatment of failed back surgery syndrome--two case reports.

    Severe, persistent back pain following back surgery is often referred to as failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS). Conservative measures such as physiotherapy, back strengthening exercises, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and epidural steroids may be inadequate to alleviate pain. Spinal Cord Stimulators were implanted into two patients suffering from FBSS. Both patients responded successfully to spinal cord stimulation with reduction of pain and disability.
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9/75. Lower limb and back pain in guillain-barre syndrome and associated contrast enhancement in MRI of the cauda equina.

    This study assesses the frequency of lower limb and back pain in children with guillain-barre syndrome and reviews the magnetic resonance imaging results of those undergoing spinal imaging. Over an 8-y period, nine children presented with various combinations of severe back pain, leg pains, impairment of gait and bladder dysfunction. guillain-barre syndrome was confirmed on clinical examination and peripheral electrophysiology (n = 8). magnetic resonance imaging in four patients, following contrast injection, showed enhancement of the cauda equine and, additionally, of the cervical nerve roots in one of the patients. A further patient, who was not scanned with contrast, had abnormal thickening of the lumbar roots. carbamazepine and steroids were effectively used for analgesia in three cases. All the patients recovered. Conclusion: guillain-barre syndrome should be considered in the differential diagnosis of children presenting with back and/or leg pain. early diagnosis ensures prompt monitoring for autonomic dysfunction and respiratory compromise.
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10/75. Root and spinal cord compression from methylmethacrylate vertebroplasty.

    STUDY DESIGN: Case report and literature review. OBJECTIVES: Clinicians use methylmethacrylate vertebroplasty to treat vertebral hemangiomas, metastases, and osteoporotic fractures. Cement may leak out of the vertebral body and compress the adjacent spinal cord and nerve roots. We review a case of nerve-root and cord compression from methylmethacrylate extrusion during vertebroplasty. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: A 50-year-old female presented with disabling thoracic back pain. A metastasis to T1 was discovered, with collapse of the vertebral body but without cord compression. methylmethacrylate vertebroplasty was performed. After injection, portable computed tomography (CT) showed a leakage of methylmethacrylate into the C8 and T1 foramina and spinal canal. radiculopathy and myelopathy developed. Surgical decompression using the anterior approach was necessary. methods: Case report. RESULTS: Early surgical intervention decompressed the neural elements and relieved the neurological deficits. CONCLUSIONS: Neurologic complications of methylmethacrylate vertebroplasty necessitate active involvement of spine surgeons in patient evaluation and management.
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