Cases reported "Bacteremia"

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1/14. Central line sepsis in a child due to a previously unidentified mycobacterium.

    A rapidly growing mycobacterium similar to strains in the present mycobacterium fortuitum complex (M. fortuitum, M. peregrinum, and M. fortuitum third biovariant complex [sorbitol positive and sorbitol negative]) was isolated from a surgically placed central venous catheter tip and three cultures of blood from a 2-year-old child diagnosed with metastatic hepatoblastoma. The organism's unique phenotypic profile and ribotype patterns differed from those of the type and reference strains of the M. fortuitum complex and indicate that this organism may represent a new pathogenic taxon.
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keywords = mycobacterium
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2/14. Application of 16S rRNA gene sequencing to identify Bordetella hinzii as the causative agent of fatal septicemia.

    We report on the first case of fatal septicemia caused by Bordetella hinzii. The causative organism exhibited a biochemical profile identical to that of bordetella avium with three commercial identification systems (API 20E, API 20 NE, and Vitek GNI card). However, its cellular fatty acid profile was not typical for either B. avium or previously reported strains of B. hinzii. Presumptive identification of the patient's isolate was accomplished by traditional biochemical testing, and definitive identification was achieved by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Phenotypic features useful in distinguishing B. hinzii from B. avium were production of alkali from malonate and resistance to several antimicrobial agents.
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ranking = 0.22976784651838
keywords = avium
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3/14. Two cases of long lasting bacteremia due to mycobacterium avium complex despite new macrolides-containing regimens in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    The prognosis of mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection has been improved by new macrolides-containing regimens and the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). We report on two AIDS cases with long lasting bacteremia due to MAC under this regimen. Both patients experienced problems due to side effects from the anti-MAC regimen and from an immune-reconstitution syndrome related to HAART. MAC infection persisted despite treatment, however, no anti-MAC drug-resistant isolates emerged throughout the clinical course in either case. These cases demonstrate that therapy for disseminated MAC infection is sometimes difficult even with HAART and macrolides-containing regimens.
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ranking = 0.38294641086396
keywords = avium
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4/14. Mycobacterium aurum bacteremia in an immunocompromised child.

    Mycobacterium aurum was cultured from the Broviac catheter of a 5-year-old child with metastatic wilms tumor. Removal of the catheter resulted in prompt resolution of the fever and sterilization of the blood culture. This rapidly growing mycobacterium, previously believed to be a commensal, can cause disease in the immunocompromised host.
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = mycobacterium
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5/14. First case report of catheter-related bacteremia due to "Mycobacterium lacticola".

    This is the first report of infection caused by "Mycobacterium lacticola," a rapidly growing, scotochromogenic mycobacterium that was isolated from the blood of an immunosuppressed child. The organism was identified by sequence analysis of >1,400 bp of the 16S rRNA gene. The clinical relevance of this isolate, coupled with its unique 16S rRNA gene sequence, should prompt further investigation to establish this organism as a valid mycobacterial species.
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = mycobacterium
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6/14. enterococcus avium bacteremia in association with ulcerative colitis.

    The enterococci are common human pathogens. enterococcus avium is a rare cause of infection in humans. A variety of immunological alterations in the intestinal mucosa of patients with ulcerative colitis may predispose them to unusual organisms. We report the first case of E. avium bacteremia in a patient with ulcerative colitis.
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ranking = 0.45953569303676
keywords = avium
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7/14. Disseminated mycobacterium bovis infection in an immunocompetent host.

    We report about a rare case of disseminated mycobacterium bovis infection in a 61 year old female immunocompetent patient with involvement of the lung, the brain, the spleen and spine. The patient had intracerebral tuberculomas with paradoxical enlargement during the first weeks of therapy. We reviewed the data of our microbiological department and found five other patients with mycobacterium bovis infection diagnosed between 1999 and 2004, which are 5.8 % of all diagnoses of tuberculosis during this period.
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ranking = 0.8
keywords = mycobacterium
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8/14. Mycobacterium avium: a potentially treatable cause of pericardial effusions.

    We present a patient with a very large pericardial effusion due to disseminated mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection with associated bacteraemia and gastroenteritis. He was hiv antibody-positive with a CD4 lymphocyte count of 10 x 10(6)/l. He complained of fevers, diarrhoea and dyspnoea and an echocardiogram showed a pericardial effusion. Chest X-ray showed progressive enlargement of the cardiac silhouette over a 3-month period. The effusion was drained surgically and antimycobacterial therapy (clarithromycin, clofazamine, rifampicin, ciprofloxacin, amikacin) was initiated. The patient had complete resolution of his pericardial effusion both clinically and radiologically. Three other AIDS patients with pericardial effusions caused by MAC are described in the medical literature, two died of cardiac dysfunction shortly after diagnosis. There is a case described of MAC-related pericardial effusion in a hiv-negative immunocompetent patient which resolved antimycobacterial therapy. MAC should be included in the differential diagnosis of pericardial effusions in AIDS patients. A combination of medical therapy and surgical intervention may give rise to considerable clinical benefit especially if initiated early.
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ranking = 0.38294641086396
keywords = avium
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9/14. Treatment of refractory disseminated nontuberculous mycobacterial infection with interferon gamma. A preliminary report.

    BACKGROUND. Studies conducted in vitro and in animals suggest that cytokine signals to monocytes or macrophages by interferon gamma are important in the containment and clearance of disseminated nontuberculous mycobacterial infections. methods. We studied seven patients with refractory, disseminated nontuberculous mycobacterial infections who were not infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Three patients were from a family predisposed to the development of mycobacterium avium complex infections; four patients had idiopathic CD4 T-lymphocytopenia. Their infections were culture- or biopsy-proved, involved at least two organ systems, and had been treated with the maximal tolerated medical therapy. Cellular proliferation, cytokine production, and phagocyte function were assessed in peripheral-blood cells. Interferon gamma was administered subcutaneously two or three times weekly in a dose of 25 to 50 micrograms per square meter of body-surface area in addition to antimycobacterial medications. Clinical effects were monitored by cultures, biopsies, radiographs, and in one patient a change in the need for paracentesis. RESULTS. In response to phytohemagglutinin, the production of interferon gamma by mononuclear cells from the patients was lower than in normal subjects (P < 0.001), whereas stimulation with ionomycin and phorbol myristate acetate led to normal production of interferon gamma in the patients. Within eight weeks of the start of interferon gamma therapy, all seven patients had marked clinical improvement, with abatement of fever, clearing of many lesions and quiescence of others, radiographic improvement, and a reduction in the need for paracentesis. CONCLUSIONS. Interferon gamma in combination with conventional therapy may be effective for some cases of refractory disseminated nontuberculous mycobacterial infection.
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ranking = 0.076589282172793
keywords = avium
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10/14. bacteremia due to enterococcus avium.

    enterococcus avium, formerly "group Q streptococcus," has rarely been reported as a pathogen in humans. To determine the clinical significance of this organism, we reviewed the records of all patients whose blood cultures were positive for E. avium who were seen at our institution from 1986 through 1991 and identified nine cases of bacteremia due to E. avium. All isolates were believed to be clinically significant. Five of nine cases developed in patients with significant gastrointestinal illnesses. The remaining clinical scenarios included intravenous catheter sepsis and factitious disorders. E. avium bacteremias were polymicrobial in seven cases; in six cases, the coisolates were gastrointestinal organisms. These observations suggest that E. avium bacteremia most often originated from a gastrointestinal tract source. We conclude that, though rare, E. avium can be pathogenic in humans and that E. avium bacteremia is associated with gastrointestinal abnormalities.
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ranking = 0.84248210390072
keywords = avium
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