Cases reported "Bacterial Infections"

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1/23. Refractory bacillus cereus infection in a neonate.

    bacillus cereus is a Gram-positive aerobic or facultatively anaerobic spore-forming rod, which usually causes food poisoning. Its recognition as a pathogen in neonates has increased over the past two decades. The clinical course of a neonate (gestation 24 weeks) with B. cereus infection refractory to therapy is described. death occurred after withdrawal of support following persistently positive blood and bone marrow cultures despite therapy with vancomycin, gentamicin, imipenum, clindamycin, ciprofloxacillin, immunoglobulin and granulocyte colony stimulating factor over a period of 49 days. No obvious focus of sepsis was identified. Contamination from the environment into the hospital and clinics occurs because of the ubiquitous presence of B. cereus. Combination therapy with vancomycin and gentamycin is appropriate for meningitis/severe systemic infections related to most bacillus species. The significance of repeated isolation of B. cereus in neonates with compromised host defences is emphasised.
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ranking = 1
keywords = bacillus
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2/23. Multibacterial sepsis in an alcohol abuser with hepatic cirrhosis.

    An alcohol abuser with hepatitis c developed multibacterial sepsis. His mean 100% alcohol intake reached 400 ml/day. In January 2001, he suddenly experienced fever (39 degrees C) with no other symptoms. One week later, he was admitted to our hospital and was subsequently diagnosed with sepsis associated with four species of bacteria (streptococcus constellatus, fusobacterium mortiferum, bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, and non-spore-forming anaerobic gram-positive bacillus). A drip infusion of imipenem/cilastatin was administrated, resulting in a successful therapeutic outcome. No underlying disorder was found except for gastric ulcers and hepatic cirrhosis. Damaged gastric mucosa was assumed to be the possible cause and route for the bacterial invasion.
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ranking = 1
keywords = bacillus
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3/23. abscess caused by vancomycin-resistant lactobacillus confusus.

    Several isolates of vancomycin-resistant lactobacillus confusus from human sources have been described, but to our knowledge, no well-documented infection attributable to this organism has been published. A thumb abscess caused by this bacterium in a healthy 49-year-old male is reported here. He was successfully treated by surgical drainage and cephalothin.
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ranking = 5
keywords = bacillus
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4/23. Histopathology of bacillary angiomatosis of lymph node.

    Bacillary angiomatosis, a recently characterized pseudoneoplastic vascular proliferation caused by a bacterium identical or related to the cat-scratch disease bacillus, usually presents as cutaneous lesions. We report the histologic findings of this disease involving the lymph nodes of two immunocompromised patients. The lymph nodes showed patchy involvement by coalescent nodules of proliferated blood vessels lined by plump endothelial cells with pale cytoplasm. There were foci exhibiting mild to moderate nuclear atypia. Although neutrophil infiltration was prominent in one case, it was minimal in the other. The interstitium was formed by pink-staining material in hematoxylin-eosin-stained sections, and this proved to be aggregated bacilli on Warthin-Starry stain. Recognition of this potentially fatal disease is important because it is curable with antibiotics.
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ranking = 1
keywords = bacillus
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5/23. The agent of bacillary angiomatosis. An approach to the identification of uncultured pathogens.

    BACKGROUND. Bacillary angiomatosis is an infectious disease causing proliferation of small blood vessels in the skin and visceral organs of patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection and other immunocompromised hosts. The agent is often visualized in tissue sections of lesions with Warthin-Starry staining, but the bacillus has not been successfully cultured or identified. This bacillus may also cause cat scratch disease. methods. In attempting to identify this organism, we used the polymerase chain reaction. We used oligonucleotide primers complementary to the 16S ribosomal rna genes of eubacteria to amplify 16S ribosomal gene fragments directly from tissue samples of bacillary angiomatosis. The dna sequence of these fragments was determined and analyzed for phylogenetic relatedness to other known organisms. Normal tissues were studied in parallel. RESULTS. Tissue from three unrelated patients with bacillary angiomatosis yielded a unique 16S gene sequence. A sequence obtained from a fourth patient with bacillary angiomatosis differed from the sequence found in the other three patients at only 4 of 241 base positions. No related 16S gene fragment was detected in the normal tissues. These 16S sequences associated with bacillary angiomatosis belong to a previously uncharacterized microorganism, most closely related to Rochalimaea quintana. CONCLUSIONS. The cause of bacillary angiomatosis is a previously uncharacterized rickettsia-like organism, closely related to R. quintana. This method for the identification of an uncultured pathogen may be applicable to other infectious diseases of unknown cause.
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ranking = 2
keywords = bacillus
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6/23. A newly recognized fastidious gram-negative pathogen as a cause of fever and bacteremia.

    BACKGROUND. We identified a motile, curved, gram-negative bacillus as the cause of persistent fever and bacteremia in two patients with symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus infection. The same organism was subsequently recovered from a bone marrow-transplant recipient with septicemia and from two immunocompetent persons with week-long febrile illnesses. All the patients recovered after antimicrobial therapy. methods AND RESULTS. Primary cultures of blood processed by centrifugation after blood-cell lysis yielded adherent, white, iridescent, morphologically heterogeneous colonies in 5 to 15 days. Subcultures grew in four days on chocolate, charcoal-yeast extract, or blood agar. The organisms stained weakly with safranin and were not acid-fast. Fluorescent-antibody tests for legionella and francisella were negative. Biochemical reactivity was minimal and difficult to ascertain. agar-dilution testing revealed in vitro susceptibility to most antimicrobial agents tested. The cellular fatty acid composition of the isolates was similar, resembling that of Rochalimaea quintana or brucella species, but not helicobacter pylori or species of campylobacter or legionella. As resolved by gel electrophoresis, cell-membrane preparations of all isolates contained similar proteins, with patterns that differed from that of R. quintana. Patterns of digestion of dna from all isolates by EcoRV restriction endonuclease were virtually identical and also differed from that of R. quintana. On immunodiffusion, serum from one convalescent patient produced a line of identity with sonicates of all five isolates. CONCLUSIONS. This pathogen may have been unidentified until now because of its slow growth, broad susceptibility to antimicrobial agents, and possible requirement of blood-cell lysis for recovery in culture. It should be sought as a cause of unexplained fever, especially in persons with defective cell-mediated immunity.
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ranking = 1
keywords = bacillus
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7/23. Epithelioid angiomatosis in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: morphology and differential diagnosis.

    A rare vascular proliferation found as a skin lesion in patients suffering from the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and sometimes referred to as epithelioid angiomatosis is believed to be a manifestation of infection by the cat scratch bacillus or a related organism. We describe the histological findings from eight lesions seen in two cases. In all cases the diagnosis could be confirmed by demonstration within the lesions of groups of gram-negative rod-shaped organisms staining positively with the Warthin-Starry stain. This condition needs to be distinguished from a variety of reactive and neoplastic vascular proliferations.
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ranking = 1
keywords = bacillus
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8/23. Primary cutaneous bacillus cereus infection in neutropenic children.

    A review of culture reports for a five-year period at St Jude Children's research Hospital yielded 10 cases of primary cutaneous bacillus cereus infection in neutropenic patients treated for cancer or aplastic anaemia. Vesicles or pustules were seen only on the limbs. The infections, all of which arose in the spring or summer, responded to antibiotics. In neutropenic patients B cereus should thus be regarded as a possible cause of isolated vesicles.
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ranking = 4
keywords = bacillus
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9/23. Fatal streptobacillus moniliformis infection in a two-month-old infant.

    streptobacillus moniliformis is an uncommon human pathogen contracted from exposure to rodents. It usually produces a mild, protracted illness (rat-bite fever, Haverhill fever, erythema arthriticum epidemicum) that has either a favorable response to antibiotic therapy or spontaneously resolves. This report describes a fatal case of streptobacillus moniliformis in an infant bitten by a wild rat. The autopsy findings included an interstitial pneumonia, fibrinous endocarditis, mild mononuclear meningitis, hepatosplenomegaly and lymphadenopathy, erythrophagocytosis, and sinusoidal mononuclear cell infiltrates in regional lymph nodes and the liver. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of the autopsy pathology findings of this agent.
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ranking = 6
keywords = bacillus
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10/23. lactobacillus pneumonia in a patient with oesophageal carcinoma.

    We report a case of necrotizing pneumonia caused by lactobacillus secondary to a tracheo-oesophageal fistula created by an oesophageal carcinoma. We emphasize the presence of resistance of lactobacillus to clindamycin and cotrimoxazole, previously reported to be effective.
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ranking = 6
keywords = bacillus
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