Cases reported "Bacterial Infections"

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1/20. Immediate tonsillectomy for peritonsillar abscess.

    OBJECTIVE: peritonsillar abscess (PTA) is one of the most common infectious diseases of the head and neck region requiring surgical intervention to relieve symptoms such as severe throat pain, fever, dysphagia, and trismus. However, the appropriate management of PTA is still controversial. In europe and the US, immediate tonsillectomy under general anesthesia has been accepted as the treatment for PTA. But in japan, immediate tonsillectomy has been regarded as contraindicated for PTA because of difficulties encountered in the operation during the acute stage, as well as possible postoperative complications. methods: A total of 103 cases of PTA treated at our clinic during the past 16 years were reviewed; immediate tonsillectomies had been performed in 99 of them. Surgical findings, postoperative course, and bacteriological examination were surveyed. RESULTS: The results showed that immediate tonsillectomy under general anesthesia was carried out safely without complications. Dramatic relief of the symptoms was obtained within a few days following each operation. A high incidence of anaerobes was observed by bacteriological examination, suggesting that sufficient drainage is required to treat this disease. CONCLUSION: We conclude that immediate tonsillectomy should be performed for peritonsillar abscess.
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ranking = 1
keywords = infectious disease
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2/20. Descending necrotizing mediastinitis due to odontogenic infections.

    OBJECTIVE: Acute purulent mediastinitis caused by oropharyngeal infection is termed descending necrotizing mediastinitis. Such infections usually have a fulminate course, leading to sepsis and frequently to death. The purpose of this study is to show the importance of early diagnosis, aggressive surgical intervention, and optimal antibiotics chemotherapy in controlling this fatal infectious disease. STUDY DESIGN: Two patients with descending necrotizing mediastinitis due to odontogenic infection who were treated at our institution are described. RESULTS: Both patients survived. CONCLUSIONS: From the patients, 23 different aerobic and anaerobic bacteria were isolated. All of the isolates were susceptible to carbapenem. Early evaluation by means of cervicothoracic computed tomography scanning was extremely useful for diagnosis and surgical planning. knowledge of anatomic pathways from the mouth to the mediastinum is essential. We believe that tracheostomy is not always necessary. In both of the cases presented, mediastinal drainage was completed through use of a transcervical approach. However, a more aggressive drainage including tracheostomy might be necessary when the infection extends below the carina.
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ranking = 1
keywords = infectious disease
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3/20. Laparoscopic management of abdominopelvic abscesses in tropical pyomyositis.

    Tropical pyomyositis is a suppurative infectious disease of skeletal muscles. The most common causative organism is staphylococcus aureus. Penicillin-resistant strains are frequently encountered. Abscesses may develop in muscle groups or body cavities remotely located from one another. We report a case of tropical pyomyositis presenting as a suppurative process in the left foreleg. Further workup, including CT scanning, demonstrated large, multi-loculated intraabdominal and pelvic abscesses. The abdominal and pelvic components were managed by laparoscopic exploration and drainage. This is the first known report of laparoscopic management of abdominopelvic abscesses associated with tropical pyomyositis.
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ranking = 1
keywords = infectious disease
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4/20. Treatment of an infected venous leg ulcer with honey dressings.

    An infectious diseases unit is potentially an ideal environment in which to carry out research into honey-based dressings. This article looks at the barriers to carrying out case study-based research, and describes the treatment of an elderly gentleman with venous leg ulcers. The patient's wounds improved with the honey-based dressing, but it failed to free the wound of microbes. One possible explanation is that the honey, instead of killing the microbes, actually provided them with a food source.
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ranking = 1
keywords = infectious disease
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5/20. Palisading granulomas caused by infectious diseases.

    We recently encountered a palisading granuloma in which an infectious cause was not considered until special stains revealed hyphae and tissue culture revealed organisms of phaeohyphomycosis. A review of more than 2,500 cases of various granulomas revealed 11 cases of palisading-type granuloma caused by infection, including phaeohyphomycosis, nontuberculous mycobacteriosis, papulonecrotic tuberculid, tuberculoid syphiloderm, cat-scratch disease, sporotrichosis, cryptococcosis, and coccidioidomycosis. Infectious disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of palisading granuloma. Special stains for bacteria, fungi, and acid-fast bacilli should be performed in biopsy specimens that have a palisading granuloma pattern with central necrosis, especially in immunosuppressed patients.
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ranking = 4
keywords = infectious disease
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6/20. Report of an infant with noma (cancrum oris).

    noma (cancrum oris) is an infectious disease that destroys the oro-facial tissues and other neighboring structures in its fulminating course. The starting point of the disease is acute ulcero-necrotic gingivitis, which results in an extensive gangrenous plaque destroying all of the soft tissues of the face. It predominantly affects children aged 2-16 years and is primarily seen in areas where the socioeconomic standards are low and there is poor hygiene, as in developing countries. We discuss possible predisposing factors in cancrum oris such as malnutrition, infectious diseases, hiv infection, and immune compromise conditions. poverty is the most important risk factor. We report the case of a 6-month-old child with noma and review the characteristic features of this disease.
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ranking = 2
keywords = infectious disease
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7/20. NEMO mutations in 2 unrelated boys with severe infections and conical teeth.

    X-linked recessive anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency is a developmental and immunologic disorder caused by mutations in nuclear factor-kappaB essential modulator (NEMO), which is essential for nuclear factor-kappaB activation. Early in life, affected boys present a typical appearance, with hypotrichosis or atrichosis, hypohidrosis or anhidrosis, and hypodontia or anodontia with conical incisors. They are also susceptible to various microorganisms, mostly pyogenic bacteria and mycobacteria. Here we report 2 unrelated boys, aged 6 and 11 years, who have novel mutations in NEMO and present conical incisors and hypodontia as their sole and long-unrecognized developmental anomaly. One child had isolated recurrent pneumococcal disease, whereas the other had multiple infections. Our observations indicate that conical incisors should prompt the search for NEMO mutations in boys with unusual infectious diseases.
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ranking = 1
keywords = infectious disease
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8/20. Imaging infection with 18F-FDG-labeled leukocyte PET/CT: initial experience in 21 patients.

    The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and the potential role of PET/CT with (18)F-FDG-labeled autologous leukocytes in the diagnosis and localization of infectious lesions. methods: Twenty-one consecutive patients with suspected or documented infection were prospectively evaluated with whole-body PET/CT 3 h after injection of autologous (18)F-FDG-labeled leukocytes. Two experienced nuclear medicine physicians who were unaware of the clinical end-diagnosis reviewed all PET/CT studies. A visual score (0-3)-according to uptake intensity-was used to assess studies. The results of PET/CT with (18)F-FDG-labeled white blood cell ((18)F-FDG-WBC) assessment were compared with histologic or biologic diagnosis in 15 patients and with clinical end-diagnosis after complete clinical work-up in 6 patients. RESULTS: Nine patients had fever of unknown etiology, 6 patients had documented infection but with unknown extension of the infectious disease, 4 patients had a documented infection with unfavorable evolution, and 2 patients had a documented infection with known extension. The best trade-off between sensitivity and specificity was obtained when a visual score of >or=2 was chosen to identify increased tracer uptake as infection. With this threshold, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were each 86% on a patient-per-patient basis and 91%, 85%, and 90% on a lesion-per-lesion basis. In this small group of patients, the absence of areas with increased WBC uptake on WBC PET/CT had a 100% negative predictive value. CONCLUSION: Hybrid (18)F-FDG-WBC PET/CT was found to have a high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of infection. It located infectious lesions with a high precision. In this small series, absence of areas with increased uptake virtually ruled out the presence of infection. (18)F-FDG-WBC PET/CT for infection detection deserves further investigation in a larger prospective series.
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ranking = 1
keywords = infectious disease
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9/20. Bacterial infection transmitted by human tissue allograft transplantation.

    Bacterial contamination of tissue allografts obtained from cadaveric donors has been a serious cause of morbidity and mortality in recipients. Recent cases of fatal and nonfatal bacterial infections in recipients of contaminated articular cartilage (distal femur) and tendon allografts have called attention to the importance of avoiding tissue donors suspected of carrying infectious disease, of not processing donated tissue carrying virulent bacteria, the occurrence of falsely negative final sterility tests, and the need to sterilize tissues. These cases demonstrated that contamination can arise from an infected donor, during tissue removal from cadaveric donors, from the processing environment, and from contaminated supplies and reagents used during processing. Final sterility testing can be unreliable, especially when antibiotics remain on tissues. There is an increasing need for control of microbial contamination in tissue banks, and sterilization of tissue allografts should be recommended whenever possible.
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ranking = 1
keywords = infectious disease
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10/20. The differential diagnosis of erythema nodosum.

    erythema nodosum is an uncommonly seen skin eruption which may be a marker of underlying systemic or infectious disease. It may also occur as a reaction to a variety of medications. The diagnosis of erythema nodosum should prompt a thorough investigation of possible causes or associated conditions which may be treatable. This paper presents a case of erythema nodosum and reviews the differential diagnosis of its causes and of similar appearing skin lesions.
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ranking = 1
keywords = infectious disease
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