Cases reported "Bacterial Infections"

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1/25. Value of 111indium leukocyte scanning in febrile organ transplant patients.

    Immunosuppressed febrile organ transplant patients present a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma since symptomatology is often altered by immunosuppression, which also masks the location of infection. Fifty 111indium leukocyte ( 111In WBC) scans were performed to determine their usefulness in the organ transplant patient. The results were compared with computerized tomography (CT) and gallium 67-citrate (Ga) scanning. Eleven patients received both 111In WBC and Ga scans; 22 received both 111In WBC and CT scans. Ten 111In WBC scans had subtraction of 99m Tc sulfur or albumin colloid for liver evaluation and four 111In WBC scans had subtraction of 99m Tc DMSA for kidney evaluation. The overall sensitivity and specificity for 111In WBC scans was 90% and 90%, respectively. lung uptake was sensitive (89%) and specific (97%) for pulmonary infections, including bacterial, fungal and cytomegalovirus pneumonias. Renal graft uptake occurred in 15 cases (41%), all except 2 being due to rejection, pyelonephritis, urinary tract infections, or cytomegalovirus infections. pyelonephritis and renal abscesses were diagnosed in 3 cases with 99m Tc DMSA subtraction. Perihepatic abscesses (2), and infected liver cysts (4) were diagnosed with 99m Tc sulfur or albumin colloid subtraction. There were five false-negative CT scans and three false-negative Ga scans. Therefore, when compared with 111In: sensitivity = 88% vs 64% (CT), specificity = 80% vs 86% (CT); and sensitivity = 111In 90% vs 67% (Ga), specificity = 100% for both 111In WBC and Ga scans.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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keywords = kidney
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2/25. Complementary role of dual isotope in non-bacteriuric renal infection--a case report.

    To detect non-bacteriuric renal infection in a diabetic patient, though difficult but is very important because early diagnosis and early treatment can prevent later complications such as renal abscess, renal hypertension or even end stage renal disease. Herein, we presented a case of diabetic patient with septicemia whose urine culture and renal ultrasonography were negative initially. By using a combination of dual isotope images and single photon emission computed tomography technique, an infectious lesion in the upper pole of left kidney was revealed, which was identified as acute focal bacterial nephritis by computed tomography four days later. This case report showed that 67Ga plus 99mTc dimercaptosuccinic acid images are useful in patients under clinical suspicion of renal infection, especially for those with negative urine analysis and/or urine culture initially.
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3/25. epinephrine renal venography in acute bacterial infection of the kidney.

    epinephrine renal venography was performed in four cases of acute bacterial infection of the kidney. Selective renal arteriography was relatively nonspecific, while venography proved to be more helpful in excluding a malignancy. In cases of renal infection where the venous system of the kidney has not been occluded, epinephrine renal venography delineates the extent and nature of the process better than arteriography. Diffuse attenuation or smooth segmental narrowing of intrarenal veins, absence of irregularly encased veins, and veins draped around, as well as perforating, the abnormal region differentiated tumor from infection. An accurate diagnosis is important in view of the different therapeutic approach to these two entities.
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4/25. MRI isolation of infected renal cyst in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    The use of gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) to isolate an infected renal cyst in the setting of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) has not been previously described. A case in which T1- and T2-weighted and gadolinium-enhanced MR images were used to identify a single purulent cyst in a patient with ADPKD is herein presented. We suggest that gadolinium-enhanced MR be considered useful in the evaluation of ADPKD patients with suspected infected cyst.
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keywords = kidney disease, kidney
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5/25. Acute focal bacterial nephritis: report of four cases.

    Focal acute bacterial nephritis is a localized bacterial infection of the kidney presenting as an inflammatory mass not containing drainable pus. The further distinction between acute focal bacterial nephritis and other renal masses is aided by the appropriate use of renal sonography and computed tomography. We report 4 cases with this entity.
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6/25. Late-onset cytomegalovirus reactivation in critically ill renal transplant patients.

    BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation occurs frequently in the first months after renal transplantation. However, reports concerning long-term kidney transplant recipients are rare and have always pertained to symptomatic CMV disease. methods: We report four cases of late-onset asymptomatic CMV reactivation in critically ill renal transplant patients who suffered from severe bacterial infections and in whom CMV antigenemia was observed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: CMV reactivation in these patients might indicate an additional disturbance in the patients' immune defenses at the time of critical illness, possibly even necessitating a temporary reduction in immunosuppressive therapy. Prospective, controlled trials are needed to define the role of CMV antigenemia in critically ill patients, including the role of antiviral therapy for asymptomatic reactivations.
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7/25. Attempted treatment of factor H deficiency by liver transplantation.

    complement factor h (FH) deficiency is one of the causes of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Most patients with FH deficiency associated HUS progress to end-stage renal disease despite plasma therapy. Moreover, the disease invariably recurs in the graft kidney and causes graft failure. We confirmed FH deficiency in a 30-month-old boy with recurrent HUS of 2 years duration, and attempted an auxiliary partial orthotopic liver transplantation (APOLT) to overcome the sustained intractable dependency on plasma therapy. APOLT restored the plasma FH level, without HUS recurrence, for 7 months. However, thereafter he suffered from serious infectious complications associated with immunosuppression and finally died 11 months after APOLT. In conclusion, although APOLT showed clinical and laboratory improvement for some period in this patient, the final fatal outcome suggests that liver transplantation should be cautiously applied to patients with HUS associated with FH deficiency.
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8/25. Lobar nephronia in a transplanted kidney.

    We report a patient who presented with a solid mass in her graft 15 years after renal transplantation. The appearances by ultrasound were consistent with either malignancy or lobar nephronia (focal acute bacterial nephritis). biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of a lobar nephronia with marked inflammatory infiltrate and frank pus formation. Treatment with antibiotics was associated with resolution of the mass. Lobar nephronia is a diagnosis based upon renal ultrasonography and must be considered in a patient with a solid mass in the kidney.
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9/25. Multiple foci of increased accumulation of Ga-67 citrate in a horseshoe kidney. Differentiation of infection from nephroblastomatosis.

    In the proper clinical setting, Ga-67 citrate appears to be a highly valuable radionuclide which may be used to differentiate an infectious process in the kidney from nephroblastomatosis. The authors present the case of a 7-year-old boy with multiple well-circumscribed foci of intense Ga-67 citrate accumulation in a horseshoe kidney. After a 2-week course of antibiotic therapy, the kidney showed significant improvement.
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keywords = kidney
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10/25. The dilemma of the multicystic dysplastic kidney.

    multicystic dysplastic kidney is the most frequent cause of an abdominal mass in the neonate, but controversy continues as to the optimal management of these lesions, since little is known about their natural history. Experience with two complicated cases and a review of reports of retained multicystic dysplastic kidneys suggest that such lesions pose a significant risk to their hosts. Malignancy, reversible hypertension, pain, and mass effect have been associated with retained lesions. Infection is another potential hazard that is frequently cited but poorly documented in the literature. In light of the currently low morbidity and mortality associated with operation and anesthesia in the neonatal period, resection appears to be the treatment of choice for the neonate with a multicystic dysplastic kidney.
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