Cases reported "Bacterial Infections"

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1/94. case reports offer a challenge to treatment strategies for immediate implants.

    The placement of osseointegrated implants in extraction sockets is a commonly used and reliable procedure. Many operative protocols have been suggested for use with both submerged and nonsubmerged implants, and some prerequisites have been defined for their successful placement. Dealing exclusively with implants placed in intact extraction sockets, this paper reviews these commonly suggested prerequisites, discusses their clinical relevance, and presents case reports in which clinical success was obtained despite the violation of more than 1 of these factors. Techniques to obtain primary implant stability, procedures to regenerate residual bone defects, the need to submerge implants in the healing phase, and treatment strategy in infected sites are reviewed. Because the simultaneous violation of some prerequisite factors allows postextractive implants to be performed with a single surgical approach, a new classification is proposed based on the number of surgical stages required to replace a failing tooth with an implant-supported restoration.
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keywords = bone
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2/94. Early-onset periodontitis in a patient with ehlers-danlos syndrome type III.

    This case history describes the course of disease in a 17-year-old boy with ehlers-danlos syndrome type III and early-onset periodontitis. Flow cytometric tests showed a reduced cell count in the specific immune system. Immunoglobulin concentrations in saliva and serum were within normal limits. Infection with T-lymphotropic viruses was excluded. The phagocytic capacity of the peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes was unimpaired. The anaerobic infection present in the early-onset periodontitis was treated with systemic antibiotic therapy and closed curettage. Following 14 days of this treatment, signs of acute inflammation subsided, and 18 months after therapy ended, a slight gain in clinical attachment was found, and bone growth was visible via radiology. However, a continuing lack of adequate oral hygiene represents a risk to the success of therapy in the long term.
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keywords = bone
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3/94. Refractory bacillus cereus infection in a neonate.

    bacillus cereus is a Gram-positive aerobic or facultatively anaerobic spore-forming rod, which usually causes food poisoning. Its recognition as a pathogen in neonates has increased over the past two decades. The clinical course of a neonate (gestation 24 weeks) with B. cereus infection refractory to therapy is described. Death occurred after withdrawal of support following persistently positive blood and bone marrow cultures despite therapy with vancomycin, gentamicin, imipenum, clindamycin, ciprofloxacillin, immunoglobulin and granulocyte colony stimulating factor over a period of 49 days. No obvious focus of sepsis was identified. Contamination from the environment into the hospital and clinics occurs because of the ubiquitous presence of B. cereus. Combination therapy with vancomycin and gentamycin is appropriate for meningitis/severe systemic infections related to most bacillus species. The significance of repeated isolation of B. cereus in neonates with compromised host defences is emphasised.
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4/94. The role of infections in primary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: a case series and review of the literature.

    There is a paucity of literature addressing infection-related morbidity and mortality in children with primary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), a rare condition characterized by abnormal proliferation of macrophages, hypercytokinemia, and T cell immunosuppression. Therefore, a retrospective chart review was done of patients diagnosed with primary HLH over a 15-year period. Significant infections present at diagnosis, during the course of illness, and just prior to death or at autopsy were noted. Of the 18 children identified with primary HLH, an infectious agent was documented at the initial presentation of HLH in 5. Significant infections occurred during therapy in 10 (56%) of 18. Of the 12 fatal cases, invasive infection was the cause of death in 8 children, and 6 of these deaths were directly attributable to invasive fungal infection. Significant infections were common during therapy in children with primary HLH, and fungal infections were an important cause of mortality in this group.
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ranking = 33.381205536332
keywords = macrophage
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5/94. Unrelated bone marrow transplantation for leukocyte adhesion deficiency.

    The severe form of leukocyte adhesion deficiency type I (LAD-I) usually leads to death early in life. Allogeneic haematopoietic transplantation is the only cure. Unrelated transplantation has been reported only once. We describe three children with LAD-I transplanted with T cell non-depleted bone marrow from unrelated HLA-matched donors. All patients engrafted, one of them at second transplant. One patient developed grade I and one grade II acute GVHD. Two patients are alive, one of them with a decrease in CD11/CD18 expression. Early referral for HLA-matched unrelated BMT is a reasonable option for patients with LAD-I lacking an HLA-matched related donor.
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keywords = bone
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6/94. psoas abscess: the spine as a primary source of infection.

    STUDY DESIGN: Case report, literature review, discussion. OBJECTIVES: To emphasize the role of the spine as primary source of infection for psoas abscess. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: spine-associated psoas abscesses increase with more frequent invasive procedures of the spine and recurring tuberculosis in industrialized countries. Diagnosis is often delayed by misinterpretation as arthritis, joint infection, or urologic or abdominal disorders. methods: We present six cases of psoas abscesses associated with spinal infections that were treated in our hospital from January to December 2001. Diagnostic and treatment concepts are discussed. RESULTS: Our data emphasize the importance of the spine as primary source of infection and suggest an increase in the incidence of secondary psoas abscess. Treatment includes open surgical drainage and antibiotic therapy. In patients with high operative risk and uniloculated abscess, a CT-guided percutaneous abscess drainage can be sufficient. It is essential to combine abscess drainage with causative treatment of the primary infectious focus. Related to the spine, this includes treatment of spondylodiscitis or implant infection after spinal surgery. Usually, several operations are necessary to eradicate bone and soft-tissue infection and restore spinal stability. Continuous antibiotic therapy over a period of 2-3 weeks after normalization of infectious parameters is recommended. CONCLUSION: The spine as primary source of infection for secondary psoas abscess should always be included in differential diagnosis. Because the prognosis of psoas abscess can be improved by early diagnosis and prompt onset of therapy, it needs to be considered in patients with infection and back or hip pain or history of spinal surgery.
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keywords = bone
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7/94. granulocyte colony-stimulating factor treatment in AIDS patients.

    Frequent complications of human immunodeficiency virus infection are hematopoietic failure and poor tolerance of myelosuppressive drugs. Reasons for neutropenia resulting from hematopoietic failure are infection of the bone marrow and hematotoxicity of treatment with zidovudine, ganciclovir, sulfonamides, and interferons. Moreover, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, transforming growth factor-beta and interferon-gamma have been shown to suppress proliferation of bone marrow cells. Both granulocyte (G-CSF) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) increase neutrophil counts and ameliorate phagocytic and bactericidic function of neutrophils. We report eight cases of AIDS patients with serious infections and neutropenia (< 750 cells/microliters), who were treated concomitantly with recombinant human G-CSF (3-4 micrograms subcutaneously per kilogram body weight daily). G-CSF treatment was well tolerated in all patients and showed no side effects or disturbances of other lineages than neutrophils. life-threatening bacterial infections were treated successfully by stimulating the neutrophil immune system. This therapy shortened the duration of subsequent treatment with antibiotics. Since human immunodeficiency virus infects CD4-positive monocytes and macrophages, which are stimulated by GM-CSF, G-CSF seems to be the cytokine of choice, if stimulation of the neutrophil lineage is warranted.
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ranking = 68.762411072664
keywords = macrophage, bone
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8/94. Invasive fungal and bacterial infections of the temporal bone.

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Objectives were to highlight the importance of surgical therapy in treating invasive polymicrobial infections of the temporal bone, to discuss the importance of antifungal therapy, and to review the differential diagnosis of ear canal granulomatous disorders. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case review at a tertiary care medical center. methods: A retrospective chart review of all patients diagnosed with invasive polymicrobial temporal bone infections was performed. Four patients were identified. All patients required surgical therapy for definitive management. All patients were followed for at least 1 year or until death. RESULTS: Three of four patients had invasive fungi as pathogens. One patient had an occult squamous cell carcinoma. At the time of writing, one patient was free of disease, two were dead of disease, and one was alive with disease. CONCLUSION: Invasive polymicrobial temporal bone infections can occur in immunocompromised patients and can possibly harbor an occult malignancy. Surgical debridement may be necessary to arrive at a correct diagnosis. Modified radical mastoidectomy with parenteral antibiotic therapy and other adjunctive measures may be necessary for disease resolution.
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keywords = bone
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9/94. temporomandibular joint involvement in malignant external otitis.

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to present 6 patients with malignant external otitis (MEO) that resulted in temporomandibular joint (TMJ) involvement and to discuss the incidence, clinical presentation, and treatment modalities. STUDY DESIGN: All patients diagnosed with MEO between 1994 and 2002 were reviewed for cases in which the TMJ was invaded by the infectious process. Only patients in whom TMJ involvement was documented radiographically and in whom the clinical course was well documented were included in this study. RESULTS: MEO was diagnosed in 42 patients over an 8-year period; TMJ involvement was recorded in 6 patients (14%). The medical history revealed controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus in 4 of the 6 patients. All patients reported early ear symptoms, mainly otalgia and otorrhea. Local signs included an ear canal filled with granulation material, edematous overlying skin, and sensitivity to palpation. Cultures taken from the external ear were positive for either pseudomonas aeruginosa, staphylococcus epidermidis, aspergillus, or proteus mirabilis. TMJ symptoms developed between 1 and 5 months after admission and included painful periauricular swelling and trismus. In 3 patients, healing was uneventful; 3 also died of the disease. CONCLUSIONS: TMJ involvement in MEO is associated with a resistant disease process, often with several recurrences. Prolonged administration of antibiotics is the treatment of choice. Surgical debridement of the TMJ is necessary for the positive identification of the pathogenic organism, in cases of abscess formation, or when osteomyelitic bone destruction of the condyle and glenoid fossa develop.
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10/94. Management of pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis with spinal cord compression in the elderly.

    Five elderly and debilitated patients presented with compressive myelopathy due to pyogenic spondylitis. All had undergone surgery which consisted of eradication of the infected tissue via an anterior approach followed by primary bone graft. Supplementary antibiotic treatment was determined by intraoperative bacteriological culture. This aggressive approach, disregarding the patients' advanced age and poor general medical state, resulted in total resolution of the neurological deficit and the patients' return to their preoperative everyday activity.
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