Cases reported "Bacterial Infections"

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1/6. Value of 111indium leukocyte scanning in febrile organ transplant patients.

    Immunosuppressed febrile organ transplant patients present a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma since symptomatology is often altered by immunosuppression, which also masks the location of infection. Fifty 111indium leukocyte ( 111In WBC) scans were performed to determine their usefulness in the organ transplant patient. The results were compared with computerized tomography (CT) and gallium 67-citrate (Ga) scanning. Eleven patients received both 111In WBC and Ga scans; 22 received both 111In WBC and CT scans. Ten 111In WBC scans had subtraction of 99m Tc sulfur or albumin colloid for liver evaluation and four 111In WBC scans had subtraction of 99m Tc DMSA for kidney evaluation. The overall sensitivity and specificity for 111In WBC scans was 90% and 90%, respectively. lung uptake was sensitive (89%) and specific (97%) for pulmonary infections, including bacterial, fungal and cytomegalovirus pneumonias. Renal graft uptake occurred in 15 cases (41%), all except 2 being due to rejection, pyelonephritis, urinary tract infections, or cytomegalovirus infections. pyelonephritis and renal abscesses were diagnosed in 3 cases with 99m Tc DMSA subtraction. Perihepatic abscesses (2), and infected liver cysts (4) were diagnosed with 99m Tc sulfur or albumin colloid subtraction. There were five false-negative CT scans and three false-negative Ga scans. Therefore, when compared with 111In: sensitivity = 88% vs 64% (CT), specificity = 80% vs 86% (CT); and sensitivity = 111In 90% vs 67% (Ga), specificity = 100% for both 111In WBC and Ga scans.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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2/6. Imaging infection with 18F-FDG-labeled leukocyte PET/CT: initial experience in 21 patients.

    The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and the potential role of PET/CT with (18)F-FDG-labeled autologous leukocytes in the diagnosis and localization of infectious lesions. methods: Twenty-one consecutive patients with suspected or documented infection were prospectively evaluated with whole-body PET/CT 3 h after injection of autologous (18)F-FDG-labeled leukocytes. Two experienced nuclear medicine physicians who were unaware of the clinical end-diagnosis reviewed all PET/CT studies. A visual score (0-3)-according to uptake intensity-was used to assess studies. The results of PET/CT with (18)F-FDG-labeled white blood cell ((18)F-FDG-WBC) assessment were compared with histologic or biologic diagnosis in 15 patients and with clinical end-diagnosis after complete clinical work-up in 6 patients. RESULTS: Nine patients had fever of unknown etiology, 6 patients had documented infection but with unknown extension of the infectious disease, 4 patients had a documented infection with unfavorable evolution, and 2 patients had a documented infection with known extension. The best trade-off between sensitivity and specificity was obtained when a visual score of >or=2 was chosen to identify increased tracer uptake as infection. With this threshold, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were each 86% on a patient-per-patient basis and 91%, 85%, and 90% on a lesion-per-lesion basis. In this small group of patients, the absence of areas with increased WBC uptake on WBC PET/CT had a 100% negative predictive value. CONCLUSION: Hybrid (18)F-FDG-WBC PET/CT was found to have a high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of infection. It located infectious lesions with a high precision. In this small series, absence of areas with increased uptake virtually ruled out the presence of infection. (18)F-FDG-WBC PET/CT for infection detection deserves further investigation in a larger prospective series.
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3/6. "Cotton fever": a benign febrile syndrome in intravenous drug abusers.

    Cotton fever is a benign, self-limited syndrome that may mimic sepsis in intravenous drug addicts. We present an illustrative case and a review of the literature. Serious illness such as pneumonia and infectious endocarditis must always be considered in febrile addicts. However, trivial illness accounts for 16% to 26% of such fevers. Recent evidence suggests that emergency physicians are able to diagnose trivial illness with 93% specificity in febrile adult drug addicts. Short-term observation units may be an alternative to hospital admission for febrile drug users with a presumptive diagnosis of trivial illness and in those in whom the diagnosis of cotton fever is entertained.
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4/6. indium-111-labeled white blood cells in the detection of osteomyelitis complicated by a pre-existing condition.

    Forty-six patients (23M, 23F) ranging in age from 19 to 79 yr with a clinical history of a nonunion fracture, surgery, diabetes or a soft-tissue infection were studied with [111In]oxine WBCs to detect osteomyelitis. There were 27 true-positive, nine true-negative, two false-positive and one false-negative. The false-positives and the false-negative occurred in patients with soft-tissue infections overlying the area of interest. All diagnoses were confirmed by intraoperative bone biopsies and cultures. Bone biopsy and scan were performed within 2 days of each other in 39 patients. The overall sensitivity was 97% (27/28), specificity, 82% (9/11) and the diagnostic accuracy, 92% (36/39). The remaining seven patients had negative [111In]WBC scans several months after positive bone biopsies and definite antibiotic treatment. This suggests that [In]WBC scans become negative after appropriate therapy is undertaken. Interobserver data was obtained from four nuclear physicians of varying experience blinded to clinical information. A high degree of agreement was found in over 90% of the cases. This study demonstrates the utility of [111In]WBC scans in the diagnosis and follow-up of complicated osteomyelitis and a high level of interobserver agreement in scan interpretation.
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keywords = specificity
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5/6. Multiple clonally-restricted immunoglobulins in human sera: disease associations.

    Diseases associated with multiple clonally-restricted serum immunoglobulin (Ig) abnormalities present at levels which, in most cases, preclude detection by conventional immunoelectrophoresis, were studied using methods for detection and characterization of homogeneous Ig that are approximately equal to 40 times more sensitive than either cellulose acetate zone electrophoresis or immunoelectrophoresis. patients with these Ig abnormalities had a high incidence of infectious disease (29% of total cases), malignancy (19%), connective tissue disease (14%) and liver disease (10%). The concentration of individual clonal products was found to wax and wane, but it could not be determined whether these clonally-restricted Ig species represent, wholly or in part, the products of dominant antibody-producing plasma cell clones involved in the patients' response to their disease. We conclude that multiple homogeneous serum Ig abnormalities occur in clinical situations where heightened antigenic stimulation and/or immune reactivity are thought to occur (e.g., infections, malignancies and autoimmunity). Laboratory evaluation of these Ig abnormalities could be useful for diagnostic and/or therapeutic monitoring purposes in situations where the specificity of the clonally-restricted Ig species can be established.
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6/6. The computer-generated bone marrow subtraction image: a valuable adjunct to combined In-111 WBC/Tc-99m in sulfur colloid scintigraphy for musculoskeletal infection.

    In-111 WBC scintigraphy supplemented by visual comparison with concurrent Tc-99m SC bone marrow imaging is used to identify infection within the marrow-containing skeleton. This retrospective study demonstrates the value of the computer-generated WBC/SC bone marrow subtraction image. Thirty-one patients with various conditions (postsurgery with or without orthopedic hardware, bacteremia with persistent fever, joint arthroplasty, and miscellaneous) underwent combined WBC/SC with bone marrow subtraction imaging. Infection was present in 21 of 36 possible sites (14 osseous, 7 soft tissue; 8 acute, 13 chronic). The bone marrow subtraction image identified two of these sites, which were not appreciated by visual inspection. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for bone marrow subtraction were 95%, 93%, and 94%, respectively, as compared to 86%, 93%, and 89%, respectively, for the visual assessment of WBC and SC images. Computer-assisted subtraction imaging improves overall accuracy and enhances diagnostic certainty of combined WBC/SC scintigraphy for infection in the marrow-containing skeleton.
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ranking = 0.33333333333333
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