Cases reported "Barotrauma"

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1/14. Infraorbital hypesthesia after maxillary sinus barotrauma.

    We report a case of a diver who suffered an episode of maxillary sinus barotrauma that presented with decreased sensation over the cutaneous distribution of the infraorbital nerve after an ascent which produced facial pain and crepitus. This case illustrates a potential confusion between a decompression sickness etiology and a barotraumatic etiology for the observed sensory deficit. The clinical features of this case were most consistent with a barotraumatic etiology for the findings noted. The anatomy of the trigeminal nerve and previous reports of cranial nerve deficits following barotrauma are reviewed.
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2/14. Delayed onset pulmonary barotrauma or decompression sickness? A case report of decompression-related disorder.

    A-24-yr-old male professional diver began to complain of substernal pain 3 h after a controlled ascent from a dive of less than 40 ft of sea water (fsw). The diving master who supervised his dive and the physicians who examined him on presentation suspected pulmonary barotrauma rather than decompression sickness (DCS) because he had only descended to a depth of 32 fsw. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO) by U.S. Navy treatment Table VI was implemented because of his progressively worsening pain. HBO was apparently effective and a relapse was not seen. The author cannot label his condition based on the conventional classification categories, such as decompression sickness (DCS), barotrauma or even decompression illness. This case report is offered as a topic for consideration in the controversy over decompression-related disorders.
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3/14. Orbital hemorrhage following face-mask barotrauma.

    A 41-yr-old female recreational diver suffered an orbital hemorrhage following face-mask barotrauma This case illustrates the potential for significant orbital injury to occur as a result of face-mask barotrauma Barotraumatic orbital hemorrhage is an unusual disorder, but recognition of this entity is important for diving physicians. The signs and symptoms should not be mistaken for decompression sickness or arterial gas embolism. patients with barotraumatic orbital hemorrhage require emergency referral to an ophthalmologist so that potentially vision-threatening ocular complications may be identified and treated. barotrauma may result in several different types of cranial neuropathies and should be recognized as another possible cause for neurologic deficits following a dive.
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4/14. Pulmonary barotrauma-induced cerebral arterial gas embolism with spontaneous recovery: commentary on the rationale for therapeutic compression.

    Pulmonary barotrauma-induced cerebral arterial gas embolism (CAGE) continues to complicate compressed gas diving activities. Inadequate lung ventilation secondary to inadvertent breath holding or rapid buoyant ascent can quickly generate a critical state of lung over-pressure. Pulmonary over-pressurization may also occur as a consequence of acute and chronic pulmonary pathologies. Resulting barotrauma frequently causes structural failure within the terminal distal airway. Respiratory gases are then free to embolize the systemic circulation via the pulmonary vasculature and the left heart. The brain is a common target organ. Bubbles that enter the cerebral arteries coalesce to form columns of gas as the vascular network narrows. Small amounts of gas frequently pass directly through the cerebral circulation without occlusion. Larger columns of gas occlude regional brain blood flow, either transiently or permanently, producing a stroke-like clinical picture. In cases of spontaneous redistribution, a period of apparent recovery is frequently followed by relapse. The etiology of relapse appears to be multifactoral, and chiefly the consequence of a failure of reperfusion. Prediction of who will relapse is not possible, and any such relapse is of ominous prognostic significance. It is advisable, therefore, that CAGE patients who undergo spontaneous recovery be promptly recompressed while breathing oxygen. Therapeutic compression will serve to antagonize leukocyte-mediated ischemia-reperfusion injury; limit potential re-embolization of brain blood flow, secondary to further leakage from the original pulmonary lesion or recirculation of gas from the initial occlusive event; protect against embolic injury to other organs; aid in the resolution of component cerebral edema; reduce the likelihood of late brain infarction reported in patients who have undergone spontaneous clinical recovery; and prophylax against decompression sickness in high gas loading dives that precede accelerated ascents and omitted stage decompression.
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5/14. Recurrent inner ear decompression sickness associated with a patent foramen ovale.

    Isolated inner ear injuries occurring during shallow scuba dives are an uncommon manifestation of decompression sickness in recreational divers. We describe a patient who presented with the typical symptoms of inner ear involvement after 2 independent dives within the decompression limits. The diver reported symptoms of unilateral (right-sided) hearing loss, tinnitus, and vertigo after dives to 35 and 50 m. After treatment with hyperbaric oxygen, his symptoms completely resolved. To confirm the hypothesis of inner ear decompression sickness (IEDCS), we examined the patient for a right-to-left shunt by cranial Doppler ultrasound and found a patent foramen ovale. The existence of a patent foramen ovale is suspected to be a risk factor for developing neurological symptoms of decompression sickness. There was no evidence of any other risk factors, so we suggest that the relevant right-to-left shunt in our patient may have been the predisposing factor that caused the inner ear symptoms during his scuba dive.
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6/14. Gastric barotrauma in a scuba diver: report of a case.

    stomach rupture can occur as a consequence of the expansion of compressed air during rapid ascent after diving. We present the case of a middle-aged woman who suffered a gastric tear from surfacing too quickly after diving, and discuss the diagnosis and management of such patients by reviewing previously reported similar events. Gastric barotrauma should be suspected in divers who complain of abdominal pain, even in the absence of frank signs of peritoneal irritation. Although pneumoperitoneum is always present in these patients, it can also occur as a consequence of pulmonary barotrauma, making gastroscopy or radiological contrast studies, or both, essential for a definitive diagnosis. Surgical repair represents the treatment of choice for an active full-thickness tear and, if associated with arterial gas embolism or decompression sickness, should ideally be performed in a center where a category I (intensive care-capable) hyperbaric unit is available.
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7/14. diving-related inner ear injuries.

    diving-related inner ear barotrauma (IEB) and inner ear decompression sickness (IEDS) most often result in permanent severe cochleovestibular deficits, unless immediate diagnosis is reached and the correct treatment is commenced early. Nine cases of sport-diving-induced inner ear injuries that were referred to the Israeli Naval Hyperbaric Institute between October 1987 and September 1989 are presented with regard to evaluation, treatment, and follow-up. The diagnosis was IEB in five divers and IEDS in four. Explorative tympanotomy was carried out with remarkable results in two patients with IEB, while the remaining three were relieved by bed rest alone. Three of the four IEDS patients were recompressed according to the extended US Navy Table 6 with good short-term results. The role of complete otoneurological evaluation in the decision-making process leading to the correct diagnosis and treatment is emphasized.
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8/14. Inner ear decompression sickness following a shallow scuba dive.

    Inner Ear decompression sickness (IEDCS)--manifested by tinnitus, vertigo, nausea, vomiting, and hearing loss--is usually associated with deep air or mixed gas dives, and accompanied by other CNS symptoms of decompression sickness (DCS). Early recompression treatment is required in order to avoid permanent inner ear damage. We present an unusual case of a scuba diver suffering from IEDCS as the only manifestation of DCS following a short shallow scuba dive, successfully treated by U.S. Navy treatment table 6 and tranquilizers. This case suggests that diving medical personnel should be more aware of the possible occurrence of IEDCS among the wide population of sport scuba divers.
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9/14. Inner ear decompression sickness combined with a fistula of the round window. Case report.

    Inner ear barotrauma with rupture of the round or oval window secondary to diving and decompression sickness (DCS) of the inner ear can be a difficult diagnosis to differentiate. The dive profile or associated elements of DCS will often confirm the diagnosis. Occasionally, diagnosis is made during recompression or during operation. The differential diagnosis is important, since immediate recompression is indicated for inner ear DCS, while it is contraindicated in cases of inner ear barotrauma. We have found no cases reported in the world literature in which both diseases have been diagnosed and proven simultaneously. We present a case of a diver who developed DCS with inner ear manifestations complicated by a round window fistula. Treatment and clinical outcome are discussed along with a brief review of the suspected cause.
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10/14. neuroimaging of scuba diving injuries to the CNS.

    diving accidents related to barotrauma constitute a unique subset of ischemic insults to the CNS. Victims may demonstrate components of arterial gas embolism, which has a propensity for cerebral involvement, and/or decompression sickness, with primarily spinal cord involvement. Fourteen patients with diving-related barotrauma were studied with MR imaging of the brain and spinal cord and with CT of the brain. In four patients with presumed cerebral gas embolism, cranial MR was abnormal in three patients while CT was abnormal in only one. Twelve patients had decompression sickness and spinal cord symptoms. MR documented spinal cord abnormalities in three patients. However, scans obtained early in our study were frequently limited by technical constraints. MR of the brain is more sensitive than conventional CT scanning techniques in detecting and characterizing foci of cerebral ischemia caused by embolic barotrauma to the CNS. Although spinal MR may be less successful in the localization of spinal cord lesions related to decompression sickness, these lesions were previously undetectable by other neuroimaging methods.
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