Cases reported "Basal Ganglia Diseases"

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1/120. motor neuron disease-inclusion dementia presenting as cortical-basal ganglionic degeneration.

    The frontotemporal dementias are a group of relatively new and evolving clinical and pathologic entities. The predominant frontal-temporal atrophy causes a variety of clinical syndromes, usually dominated by disturbances in behavior, mood, and speech. The motor neuron disease-inclusion dementia (MNDID) subtype is characterized by the accumulation of specific intraneuronal ubiquitin-immunoreactive inclusions with the complete absence of tau immunoreactivity. We present a patient with the clinical and neuroimaging characteristics of a highly asymmetric neurodegenerative condition distinguished by limb rigidity, bradykinesia, dystonia with an alien limb phenomenon, cortical sensory findings, and limb apraxia. His premorbid diagnosis was cortical-basal ganglionic degeneration but he had the typical histologic features of a frontotemporal dementia of the MNDID subtype.
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ranking = 1
keywords = dystonia
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2/120. Acute onset of chorea and dystonia following a febrile illness in a 1-year-old boy.

    A 12-month-old boy with acute onset hemichorea and dystonia following a gastroenteritis has abnormal signal intensities of his basal ganglia on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A rigorous laboratory investigation is successful in diagnosing his rare condition. A discussion of the differential of abnormal basal ganglia on MRI is presented to help illustrate this case.
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ranking = 5
keywords = dystonia
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3/120. clozapine-associated extrapyramidal reaction.

    OBJECTIVE: To report a case of extrapyramidal reaction associated with a dosage increase of clozapine. CASE SUMMARY: A 44-year-old white man with a 20-year history of chronic paranoid schizophrenia was admitted to an inpatient psychiatric facility. His prior medications restarted on admission were clozapine 650 mg at bedtime, haloperidol 10 mg at bedtime, clonazepam 2 mg/d, and aspirin 325 mg/d. Two days after admission (hospital day 3), clozapine and clonazepam were discontinued, and he was prescribed haloperidol 5 mg every morning and 10 mg every evening. Stabilization occurred over the following 24 days, with progressively lower dosages of haloperidol and increasing dosages of clozapine. haloperidol was discontinued on day 24. On day 47, the patient was agitated and making bizarre statements; thus, the morning dose of clozapine was increased by 50 mg (total 450 mg/d). On day 48 at 2200, a dystonic reaction was diagnosed; he received intramuscular diphenhydramine 50 mg, which caused the reaction to subside. At the time of the adverse reaction, he was prescribed clozapine 450 mg/d, vitamin e 400 IU three times daily, aspirin 325 mg/d, and acetaminophen, milk of magnesia, and Maalox as needed. DISCUSSION: Although the risk of extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) is significantly lower with clozapine than with conventional agents, elevated clozapine blood concentrations have been reported to cause EPS; other reports have cited severe dystonias and dyskinesias on abrupt clozapine withdrawal. Considering the medications prescribed at the time and the discontinuation of haloperidol 24 days before the event, clozapine was the most likely cause of the extrapyramidal reaction. CONCLUSIONS: Regardless of anticipated safety associated with novel antipsychotics such as clozapine, reports of dystonic reactions must be taken into account and patients monitored appropriately.
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ranking = 1.6812505913936
keywords = dystonia, dyskinesia
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4/120. Corticobasal ganglionic degeneration with Balint's syndrome.

    Corticobasal ganglionic degeneration (CBGD) is a neurodegenerative dementia characterized by asymmetric parkinsonism, ideomotor apraxia, myoclonus, dystonia, and the alien hand syndrome. This report describes a patient with CBGD who developed Balint's syndrome with simultanagnosia, oculomotor apraxia, and optic ataxia.
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ranking = 1
keywords = dystonia
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5/120. Recognition and management of acute neuroleptic-induced extrapyramidal motor and mental syndromes.

    After nearly 50 years of therapeutic application of neuroleptics, diagnosis and classification of neuroleptic-induced extrapyramidal syndromes still concentrate on their "neurological" (motor) aspects. Psychiatric (mental) aspects are in general - if at all - regarded as "secondary" to motor symptoms. Psychiatric side effects of neuroleptics (including psychotic exacerbations during neuroleptic treatment) have, however, anecdotally been reported since 1954 but never developed into a systematic classification. Accordingly, psychiatric manifestations of extrapyramidal side effects frequently are overlooked, misdiagnosed as psychotic deteriorations and treated by increased dosing of neuroleptics instead anticholinergics, which in addition are falsely suspected of bearing a high addictive potential and the risk of development of tardive dyskinesia. It is suggested that neuroleptic-induced basal ganglia dysfunction results in motor as well as mental extrapyramidal side effects, whose recognition and management is essential to achieve better tolerability of and thereby compliance with neuroleptic treatment.
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ranking = 0.68125059139363
keywords = dyskinesia
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6/120. meige syndrome secondary to basal ganglia injury: a potential cause of acute respiratory distress.

    BACKGROUND: meige syndrome is a movement disorder that includes blepharospasm and oromandibular dystonias. Its etiology may be idiopathic (primary) or it may arise secondary to focal brain injury. Acute respiratory distress as a feature of such dystonias occurs infrequently. A review of the literature on meige syndrome and the relationship between dystonias and respiratory compromise is presented. methods: A 60-year-old woman suffered a cerebral anoxic event secondary to manual strangulation. She developed progressive blepharospasm combined with oromandibular and cervical dystonias. neuroimaging demonstrated bilateral damage localized to the globus pallidus. Years later, she presented to the emergency department in intermittent respiratory distress associated with facial and cervical muscle spasms. RESULTS: Increasing frequency and severity of the disorder was noted over years. The acute onset of respiratory involvement required intubation and eventual tracheotomy. A partial therapeutic benefit of tetrabenazine was demonstrated. CONCLUSION: This case highlights two interesting aspects of Meige's syndrome: (1) Focal bilateral basal ganglia lesions appear to be responsible for this patient's movement disorder which is consistent with relative overactivity of the direct pathway from striatum to globus pallidus internal and substantia nigra pars reticularis; (2) Respiratory involvement in a primarily craniofacial dystonia to the point of acute airway compromise.
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ranking = 5.0168843278948
keywords = dystonia, idiopathic
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7/120. Vascular Parkinsonism: a case report and review of the literature.

    Vascular Parkinsonism (VP) is characterised by sudden onset and rapid progression of clinical symptoms, absent or poor response to dopamine substitution therapy, and postural instability with shuffling gait and absence of tremor, making it a clinically distinct entity from idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD). Furthermore, it displays certain typical findings in neurological investigations. We report on a patient presenting features of VP associated with an intracerebral lesion not ascribed to VP to date, namely an isolated ischaemic focal lesion located in the left cerebral peduncle between the substantia nigra and nucleus ruber as evidenced by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The pathophysiological organic correlate for contralateral extrapyramidal symptoms in this patient may be an interruption of nigro-thalamic projection, interrupting the final subcortical station in the cortic-striato-pallido-nigro-thalamico-cortical loop central to the pathophysiology of parkinsonian syndromes. Non-response t o levodopa therapy could be a consequence of disruption of the cortico-basal ganglia-cortical loop on account of ischaemic destruction of subcortico-cortical axons, the underlying pathology, therefore, not being the result of a loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons or striatal dopamine deficiency pathogonomonic of IPD. To our knowledge, this is the first case of clinically manifest VP to be described with a single lesion in the contralateral cerebral peduncle between the substantia nigra and nucleus ruber, and suggests alternative intracerebral patterns for the distribution of disease-causing lesions in VP, and possibly new pathophysiological explanations for the nature of this disease.
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ranking = 0.016884327894832
keywords = idiopathic
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8/120. Transient dystonias in three patients treated with tiagabine.

    PURPOSE: Tiagabine (TGB) is a new antiepileptic drug (AED) with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic mechanism of action. GABAergic compounds may influence the extrapyramidal system, probably via modulation of dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurons. A well-known side effect of TGB is probably dose-related extrapyramidal tremor. To our knowledge, acute dystonias associated with TGB treatment have yet to be described. methods: Three patients with transient acute dystonic reactions while taking TGB as add-on therapy with carbamazepine (CBZ) are presented. The focal limb dystonia in one case, an oromandibular dystonia in second, and writer's cramp in third one were observed. RESULTS: In all cases dystonic movements resolved spontaneously without discontinuation of TGB therapy and without any concomitant treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Tiagabine may cause various mild extrapyramidal side effects. All three cases reported were diagnosed with transient possibly drug-related dystonia after increase in TGB dose. It remain unclear whether dystonic movements are specific for patients treated with TGB/CBZ bitherapy.
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ranking = 8
keywords = dystonia
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9/120. Cytochrome c oxidase partial deficiency-associated leigh disease presenting as an extrapyramidal syndrome.

    leigh disease is a subacute neurodegenerative disorder characterized by symmetric necrotic lesions in the basal ganglia, cerebellum, thalamus, brain stem, and optical nerves and caused by altered oxidative phosphorylation. We describe the clinical, biochemical, neuroimaging, and molecular studies of a 19-year-old boy with early-onset leigh disease manifesting as severe extrapyramidal disorder with generalized dystonia and choreoathetosis. He was born of healthy parents after an uneventful pregnancy and delivery. At the age of 2 1/2 years, after a minor respiratory infection, he developed unstable, broad-based gait and tremor of the hands. These symptoms persisted for the next several years, when ataxia became more prominent. Difficulty in swallowing, dysarthria, trunk dystonia, and marked dyskinesia of the arms and hands gradually developed. Nystagmus, transient ptosis, and strabismus also appeared. Abnormal laboratory findings included elevated plasma and cerebrospinal fluid lactate and pyruvate, with an abnormal lactate/pyruvate ratio. Cranial computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated signs of cerebellar atrophy, bilateral and symmetric hypodensities in the lentiform nucleus and thalamus, and transient hyperintensities of cerebral peduncles in T2-weighted sequences suggestive of leigh disease. Muscle biopsy revealed isolated fiber atrophy, necrotic fibers undergoing phagocytosis, and no ragged-red fibers. The measured catalytic activity of cytochrome c oxidase in skeletal muscle homogenates demonstrated a partial cytochrome c oxidase deficiency No abnormalities in the mitochondrial genome and in the SURF-1 gene were found. The boy is currently receiving levodopa therapy, creatine monohydrate, and a high dosage of thiamine and lipoic acid, his condition is stabilized, and extrapyramidal symptoms are less pronounced.
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ranking = 2.6812505913936
keywords = dystonia, dyskinesia
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10/120. acetylcholinesterase inhibition and the extrapyramidal syndrome: a review of the neurotoxicity of organophosphate.

    Organophosphate poisonings are not uncommon, and are the leading cause of death in suicide patients in taiwan. Acute cholinergic crisis caused by the inhibition of synaptic acetylcholinesterase is the major manifestation of organophosphate poisoning and may cause death within minutes. Delayed neurotoxicities include intermediate syndrome and delayed polyneuropathy have also been described. However, these symptoms may not characterize the complete picture of organophosphate poisoning. Among the 633 patients ever admitted to our hospital with organophosphate poisoning, three patients were found exhibiting impermanent neuromuscular dysfunction, including blepharoclonus, oculogyric crisis, intermittent dystonia, rigidity, and tremor, with two of them developing mask face, dyskinesia and akathisia later, following acute cholinergic crisis. The symptoms appeared within 4 days with the duration ranging from 25 days to 2 months. Other causes of the extrapyramidal syndrome noted on these patients have been excluded, and we consider the extrapyramidal syndrome a possible neurotoxic manifestation of organophosphate poisoning, which is transient, needs no treatment, and may be missed because of the critical condition, in a minority of patients. The mechanism remains to be identified, but may be related to the impediment of the function of acetylcholinesterase to modify nigrostriatal dopaminergic system, which is independent of hydrolyzing acetylcholine. More detailed observation for organophosphate poisoned patients and more studies for the biological functions of acetylcholinesterase including the influence on the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system are needed.
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ranking = 1.6812505913936
keywords = dystonia, dyskinesia
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