Cases reported "Basal Ganglia Diseases"

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11/120. Slowly progressive aphasia with striatal involvement.

    We have described four patients with slowly progressive aphasia with striatal involvement occurring at different stages in the course of the illness. There were two males and two females, and their ages ranged from 68 to 76 (mean: 72) years. The extrapyramidal signs included tremors, bradykinesia, rigidity, and focal dystonia, and one had weakness resembling stroke. There is a heterogeniety among patients with slowly progressive aphasia and the clinical features correspond to the functional anatomy of the areas involved rather than to the pathology.
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ranking = 1
keywords = dystonia
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12/120. Extrapyramidal symptoms with ritonavir/indinavir plus risperidone.

    OBJECTIVE: To report a case of suspected extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) in a patient initiated on ritonavir and indinavir while taking risperidone for a tic disorder. CASE SUMMARY: A 35-year-old white man with AIDS received risperidone 2 mg twice daily for treatment of a Tourette's-like tic disorder. ritonavir and indinavir were initiated, and 1 week later, he experienced significantly impaired swallowing, speaking, and breathing, and worsening of his existing tremors. ritonavir and indinavir were discontinued. On the same day, the patient increased the risperidone dosage to 3 mg twice daily. Symptoms continued to worsen over the next 3 days. All investigations and laboratory parameters were unremarkable, and vital signs were stable. risperidone was discontinued and clonazepam initiated. Three days later, the patient's symptoms were significantly improved. DISCUSSION: The symptoms described herein are consistent with neuroleptic-induced acute dystonia and potentially neuroleptic-induced parkinsonism. We believe this adverse effect occurred as a result of a drug interaction between ritonavir/indinavir and risperidone. Based on the pharmacokinetics of these medications, we hypothesize that inhibition of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 by ritonavir and indinavir may have resulted in an accumulation of the active moiety of risperidone, which may explain the occurrence of EPS in this patient. CONCLUSIONS: This is the second published case report describing a suspected drug interaction with ritonavir, indinavir, and risperidone. Caution is warranted when risperidone is prescribed with ritonavir/indinavir, and possibly with other antiretrovirals that inhibit the same pathways.
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ranking = 1
keywords = dystonia
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13/120. Botulinum toxin treatment in atypical parkinsonian disorders associated with disabling focal dystonia.

    We investigated the efficacy of botulinum toxin A (BtxA) therapy in patients with atypical parkinsonian disorders (APD) exhibiting different types of disabling focal dystonia unresponsive to oral drug therapy. Eight patients with functionally disabling focal dystonia out of a series of 60 consecutive patients with APDs regularly treated at our outpatient movement disorders clinic were included. patients were diagnosed according to established criteria and had disabling limb dystonia (n=4) or craniocervical dystonia (n=4) unresponsive to oral pharmacological treatment. Localization and dose of BtxA injections was determined individually based on clinical examination as well as EMG in patients with limb dystonia. BtxA reduced dystonic symptoms in all patients; only one developed a transient local side-effect. BtxA was particularly effective in the long-term treatment (up to 50 months) of blepharospasm associated with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). BtxA also alleviated PSP-associated retrocollis and orofacial dystonia with lower lip retraction associated with PSP and multiple system atrophy. BtxA treatment of limb dystonia in corticobasal degeneration (CBD) temporarily improved hand and arm function in early-disease stages while treatment in advanced stages reduced pain, facilitated hygiene and prevented secondary contractures. Limb dystonia was also alleviated by BtxA therapy in one patient with neuronal multisystem degeneration of undetermined cause. The results suggest that BtxA therapy may represent an effective means of alleviating disabling focal dystonia in different APDs. Particularly in early stage APD with disabling limb dystonia local BtxA injections may result in functional improvement.
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ranking = 14
keywords = dystonia
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14/120. Progressive delayed-onset dystonia after cerebral anoxic insult in adults.

    The basal ganglia, especially the globi pallidi (GP), are highly vulnerable to generalized cerebral anoxia/hypoxia. We report on 2 new cases with delayed-onset generalized dystonia due to cerebral anoxia. The onset of dystonia in both of our patients was delayed by about 2 months. In both cases, the unusual feature was the progressive worsening and the spread of dystonia over many years after delayed onset. dystonia progressed for 16 years in Case 1 and for 4 years in Case 2. Furthermore, initial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of Case 1 showed mild changes of the internal capsule sparing the basal ganglia. Years later, in line with clinical progression, the follow-up MRI scan showed isolated bilateral lesions involving the entire GP. MRI scans in Case 2 showed bilateral lesions of caudate and lentiform nuclei. There may be several mechanisms underlying delayed and progressive symptoms after time-limited brain anoxia. We hypothesize that anoxia-induced excitotoxicity resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction and subsequent apoptosis may explain, at least partly, the delayed-onset and progressive extrapyramidal syndromes seen in these patients.
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ranking = 7
keywords = dystonia
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15/120. Secondary cervical dystonia associated with structural lesions of the central nervous system.

    We tested the hypothesis that structural lesions of the central nervous system (CNS) associated with cervical dystonia more commonly involve the cerebellum and its primary afferent pathways than basal ganglia structures. Cervical dystonia is the most common focal dystonia, the majority of cases are idiopathic, and only a small percentage of patients have a family history of dystonia or other movement disorders. Pathophysiological mechanisms operative in solely or predominantly appendicular dystonias such as writer's cramp and Oppenheim's dystonia, respectively, may not be directly applicable to axial dystonias. The localization of structural lesions of the CNS associated with secondary cervical dystonia may provide some insight into the neural structures potentially involved in primary cervical dystonia. The National Library of medicine Gateway (from 1960) and a clinical database maintained by the senior author (from 1999) were searched for cases of secondary cervical dystonia associated with structural lesions of the CNS. Search terms included one or more of the following: dystonia, torticollis, cervical, secondary, and symptomatic. Lesion localization and type, patient age, patient gender, head position, occurrence of sensory tricks, and associated neurological findings were tabulated for each case. Structural lesions associated with cervical dystonia were most commonly localized to the brainstem and cerebellum. The remaining cases were equally divided between the cervical spinal cord and basal ganglia. Although inconsistent, head rotation tended to be contralateral to lesion localization. Additional neurological abnormalities were present in the majority of patients with secondary cervical dystonia. The relative paucity of basal ganglia pathology and concentration of lesions in the brainstem, cerebellum, and cervical spinal cord in patients with secondary cervical dystonia suggests that dysfunction of cerebellar afferent pathways may be important to the pathophysiology of primary cervical dystonia.
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ranking = 19.016884327895
keywords = dystonia, idiopathic
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16/120. Neonatal dopa-responsive extrapyramidal syndrome in twins with recessive GTPCH deficiency.

    The authors report two twin sisters, age 15 years, with recessive gtp cyclohydrolase deficiency, who presented with neonatal onset of rigidity, tremor, and dystonia but with no other symptoms suggestive of a diffuse CNS involvement. The plasma phenylalanine levels were normal. Treatment with L-dopa/carbidopa, started at age 1 year, was associated with sustained recovery from all neurologic signs. The patients were homozygous for a new recessive mutation in the GHI gene.
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ranking = 1
keywords = dystonia
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17/120. basal ganglia injury as a complication of the ketogenic diet.

    movement disorders or basal ganglia injury have not been reported as complications of the ketogenic diet, an alternative treatment for intractable epilepsy. We report on a novel complication of the ketogenic diet manifesting as a severe extrapyramidal movement disorder and bilateral putaminal lesions. A single case is described. A video demonstrating the movement disorder is included. A 5-year-old girl with a cryptogenic epileptic encephalopathy developed focal dystonia, diffuse chorea, and ataxia after starting the ketogenic diet. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated bilateral putaminal lesions that were not present before starting the diet. MR spectroscopy showed a lactate peak in the basal ganglia, suggesting a failure of mitochondrial energy metabolism as the mechanism of cerebral injury. The radiographic abnormalities resolved after stopping the diet, although the movement disorder persisted. basal ganglia injury and extrapyramidal movement abnormalities are potential complications of the ketogenic diet. Concomitant use of valproate or a latent inborn error of metabolism may be risk factors for these rare complications.
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ranking = 1
keywords = dystonia
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18/120. Focal myoclonus-dystonia of the leg secondary to a lesion of the posterolateral putamen: clinical and neurophysiological features.

    We report on a patient with spontaneous and stimulus-sensitive myoclonic jerks and dystonia of the right leg that had been present since infancy. magnetic resonance imaging showed a linear area of gliosis confined to the left posterolateral putamen. This is the first report of focal myoclonus-dystonia of the lower limb secondary to a putaminal lesion.
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ranking = 6
keywords = dystonia
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19/120. Alcohol-induced paroxysmal nonkinesogenic dyskinesia after pallidal hypoxic insult.

    We describe the first case of paroxysmal nonkinesogenic dyskinesia secondary to pallidal ischaemia, which is uniquely and specifically triggered by alcohol.
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ranking = 3.4062529569681
keywords = dyskinesia
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20/120. neuroleptic malignant syndrome-like state in a patient with down syndrome and basal ganglia calcification.

    We report a case of rhabdomyolysis in a 13-year-old down syndrome patient with progressive quadriplegia, choreoathetosis and dystonia. Cranial CT demonstrated bilateral basal ganglia calcification. He experienced the sudden onset of high fever, cloudiness of consciousness, muscle rigidity and severe opisthotonus. The diagnosis was made on the basis of the marked increases in serum creatine kinase and myoglobin. There was remarkable elevation of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, homovanillic acid and methoxy-hydroxyphenyl glycol in the cerebrospinal fluid during hyperpyrexia. This case exhibited almost all the diagnostic criteria of the neuroleptic malignant syndrome. It was suggested that abnormalities of monoamines in the central nervous system may be related to the pathologic etiology of this state and rhabdomyolysis.
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ranking = 1
keywords = dystonia
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