Cases reported "Basal Ganglia Diseases"

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1/22. Botulinum toxin treatment in atypical parkinsonian disorders associated with disabling focal dystonia.

    We investigated the efficacy of botulinum toxin A (BtxA) therapy in patients with atypical parkinsonian disorders (APD) exhibiting different types of disabling focal dystonia unresponsive to oral drug therapy. Eight patients with functionally disabling focal dystonia out of a series of 60 consecutive patients with APDs regularly treated at our outpatient movement disorders clinic were included. patients were diagnosed according to established criteria and had disabling limb dystonia (n=4) or craniocervical dystonia (n=4) unresponsive to oral pharmacological treatment. Localization and dose of BtxA injections was determined individually based on clinical examination as well as EMG in patients with limb dystonia. BtxA reduced dystonic symptoms in all patients; only one developed a transient local side-effect. BtxA was particularly effective in the long-term treatment (up to 50 months) of blepharospasm associated with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). BtxA also alleviated PSP-associated retrocollis and orofacial dystonia with lower lip retraction associated with PSP and multiple system atrophy. BtxA treatment of limb dystonia in corticobasal degeneration (CBD) temporarily improved hand and arm function in early-disease stages while treatment in advanced stages reduced pain, facilitated hygiene and prevented secondary contractures. Limb dystonia was also alleviated by BtxA therapy in one patient with neuronal multisystem degeneration of undetermined cause. The results suggest that BtxA therapy may represent an effective means of alleviating disabling focal dystonia in different APDs. Particularly in early stage APD with disabling limb dystonia local BtxA injections may result in functional improvement.
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ranking = 1
keywords = progressive supranuclear, supranuclear, supranuclear palsy, palsy
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2/22. Children with irreversible brain damage associated with hypothyroidism and multiple intracranial calcifications.

    Children who develop clinical hypothyroidism in early childhood have various degrees of irreversible brain damage, albeit less severe than cases detected by neonatal screening test for hypothyroidism in the first months of the life. We report three patients with hypothyroidism of childhood onset after a normal neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone screening who showed deceleration in linear growth, spasticity in the lower limbs with deformity, mild intellectual impairment, and multiple calcifications in the basal ganglia and subcortical areas. The neurologic symptoms were not progressive but were irreversible in spite of thyroxine treatment. Motor disturbances commonly observed in postnatal-onset hypothyroidism are similar to those of cerebral palsy. Specific distribution of intracranial calcifications may result from metabolic derangement as a result of hypothyroidism, although the mechanism of calcification is not fully understood. We emphasize the need to re-evaluate thyroid function in diplegic patients with specific intracranial calcifications but normal neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone screening.
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ranking = 0.00010742163229616
keywords = palsy
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3/22. Athetoid cerebral palsy with cysts in the putamen after hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy.

    Three cases of athetoid cerebral palsy after hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) are reported. All three neonates had haemorrhagic lesions in the basal ganglia and thalami on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Prior cranial ultrasound had detected the lesions in only two cases. In all three children athetoid movements began within the first year of life. Follow up MRI scans showed bilateral symmetrical cystic lesions in the posterior putamen. Although haemorrhagic lesions within the basal ganglia are a common MRI finding in neonates with HIE, few of these babies develop athetoid cerebral palsy. We believe this to be the first report of discrete cystic lesions found in the basal ganglia of children with athetoid cerebral palsy.
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ranking = 0.00075195142607311
keywords = palsy
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4/22. Clinical grand round: a rapidly progressive pyramidal and extrapyramidal syndrome with a supranuclear gaze palsy.

    The case history of a patient with a rapidly progressive spastic tetraparesis, pseudobulbar palsy, supranuclear gaze palsy, and extrapyramidal signs is presented. The patient died 17 months after symptom onset, and the differential diagnosis and pathological findings are reviewed.
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ranking = 1.8029812624706
keywords = supranuclear, palsy
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5/22. frontotemporal dementia with co-occurrence of astrocytic plaques and tufted astrocytes, and severe degeneration of the cerebral white matter: a variant of corticobasal degeneration?

    We report two patients who exhibited frontotemporal dementia (FTD) with unusual neuropathological features. The ages of the patients at death were 65 and 67 years, the disease durations were 6 and 5 years, and the clinical diagnoses were Pick's disease and corticobasal degeneration (CBD), respectively. At autopsy, both cases exhibited neuropathological findings compatible with those of CBD, including atrophy of the frontal and parietal lobes, neuronal loss and gliosis in the cortical and subcortical regions, and presence of cortical ballooned neurons and astrocytic plaques (APs). In both cases, immunoblotting of insoluble tau exhibited the pattern of selective accumulation of four-repeat tau, a finding that is also compatible with CBD. However, severe degeneration was evident in the frontal and parietal white matter in both cases. Moreover, a striking finding was the widespread presence in the affected cortex of tufted astrocytes (TAs), which are characteristic of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Neither co-occurrence of APs and TAs nor severe degeneration of the cerebral white matter is a feature of either CBD or PSP. No mutations were found in the tau gene in either case. In conclusion, the possibility that these two cases represent a new neuropathological phenotype of non-familial FTD rather than simply a variant of CBD cannot be completely excluded.
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ranking = 1
keywords = progressive supranuclear, supranuclear, supranuclear palsy, palsy
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6/22. An unexpected finding in an eight-year-old child with cerebral palsy and weight loss.

    Poor weight gain is frequently seen in children with cerebral palsy. This is most commonly due to poor oral-motor coordination, resulting in inadequate caloric intake. We present the case of an eight-year-old girl with aicardi syndrome who had been an exclusively oral feeder and who was noted to have had a 10-lb weight loss over the previous months when she was admitted to the hospital with seizures. Due to ongoing diminished oral intake, a barium swallow was performed, which revealed a filling defect. The mass that was removed at surgery proved to be a lactobezoar, a very uncommon finding in a child of this age.
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ranking = 0.00053710816148079
keywords = palsy
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7/22. Persistent extrapyramidal syndrome with dystonia and rigidity caused by combined metoclopramide and prochlorperazine therapy.

    We have reported the case of a 58-year-old woman with cerebral palsy who experienced a persistent, generalized syndrome of dystonia and rigidity (tardive dystonia-parkinsonism) while being treated for vomiting with metoclopramide in combination with prochlorperazine. This syndrome was more severe than is typically seen in drug-induced extrapyramidal syndromes and may have contributed to her death. The extreme severity of this disorder was probably related to the use of a combination of dopamine antagonists in a patient who had premorbid cerebral dysfunction. Although dopamine antagonists should always be used with caution in individuals with cerebral dysfunction, this particular combination of antiemetics should probably be avoided in such patients.
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ranking = 0.00010742163229616
keywords = palsy
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8/22. Cyclosporin-associated akinetic mutism and extrapyramidal syndrome after liver transplantation.

    Three patients developed akinetic mutism on the third day after the introduction of intravenous cyclosporin A, given for immunosuppression after liver transplantation. One patient in addition developed a florid orofacial dyskinesia, which resolved completely, as did the akinetic mutism, after withdrawal of cyclosporin. In these patients the time course of the akinetic mutism and extrapyramidal syndrome, which developed in the absence of any other identifiable cause, suggests cyclosporin A was the precipitating factor. Subsequently, two of the patients showed signs of pseudobulbar palsy with abnormalities in the pons on MRI scanning, suggesting central pontine myelinolysis (CPM). None of the patients had experienced significant fluctuations in serum sodium or other risk factors for central pontine myelinolysis and the exact relationship to the earlier cyclosporin related mutism was not clear.
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ranking = 0.00010742163229616
keywords = palsy
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9/22. Encephalopathy with calcifications of the basal ganglia in children. A reappraisal of Fahr's syndrome with respect to 14 new cases.

    Calcifications of the basal ganglia are described under the heading of "Fahr's syndrome". The clinical pattern is variable and the syndrome may be sporadic or familial. This study describes a personal series of 14 cases of encephalopathy with calcification of the basal ganglia and reviews the literature cases. A four-group classification is proposed. The first group includes encephalopathy, microcephaly, dwarfism, retinal degeneration or optic atrophy, symmetrical patchy demyelination with calcifications and probable autosomal recessive inheritance. Some cases have an early onset, a rapid evolution. Others have a later onset, longer course and retinal degeneration. In the second group, the children suffer from a congenital encephalopathy or a cerebral palsy without clear deterioration, without short stature, ocular impairment or persistent CSF abnormalities. This group has not been reported in the literature. The cases do not seem to be genetic. The precise cause in unknown but a sporadic non progressive anoxo-ischemic, or viral prenatal disease is suggested. In the third group, the association of encephalopathy, microcephaly, and persistent CSF lymphocytosis, has a high recurrence rate. The pathogenesis is still a matter of dispute. The fourth group is characterized by autosomal dominant calcifications of the basal ganglia with or without neurological abnormalities. Finally calcium metabolism disorders and mitochondrial encephalomyopathy may be associated with calcifications of the basal ganglia.
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ranking = 0.00010742163229616
keywords = palsy
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10/22. Progressive supranuclear palsy misdiagnosed as schizophrenia.

    A 72-year-old woman, who had previously been diagnosed as schizophrenic, experienced a year of deterioration in her ability to care for herself. She was variously diagnosed as having parkinsonism, catatonic schizophrenia, atypical psychosis, depression, and dementia before she was appropriately diagnosed as having progressive supranuclear palsy.
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ranking = 2.7436068267534
keywords = progressive supranuclear, supranuclear, supranuclear palsy, palsy
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