Cases reported "Basal Ganglia Diseases"

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1/426. tetany, tetanus or drug reaction? A case report.

    An 8-year-old child was given perphenazine to prevent vomiting after surgery and developed an acute dystonic reaction; There were features of both tetany and tetanus without any of the classical features of extrapyramidal disturbance. The diagnostic difficulties are discussed. The reaction was treated successfully with i.v. diazepam. The prescribing of anti-emetics after surgery is examined critically with special reference to children.
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keywords = tic
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2/426. basal ganglia germinoma with progressive cerebral hemiatrophy.

    The authors describe a 7-year-old Chinese-American female with a germinoma of the basal ganglia who presented with progressive hemiparesis and cerebral hemiatrophy. The additional finding of markedly elevated antiphospholipid antibodies suggests the possibility of an autoimmune pathogenesis for the progressive cerebral atrophy, as well as the later development of cognitive decline, tics, and obsessive-compulsive behaviors.
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ranking = 0.33333333333333
keywords = tic
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3/426. frontotemporal dementia and corticobasal degeneration in a family with a P301S mutation in tau.

    The tau gene has been found to be the locus of dementia with rigidity linked to chromosome 17. Exonic and intronic mutations have been described in a number of families. Here we describe a P301S mutation in exon 10 of the tau gene in a new family. Two members of this family were affected. One individual presented with frontotemporal dementia, whereas his son has corticobasal degeneration, demonstrating that the same primary gene defect in tau can lead to 2 distinct clinical phenotypes. Both individuals developed rapidly progressive disease in the third decade. Neuropathologically, the father presented with an extensive filamentous pathology made of hyperphosphorylated tau protein. Biochemically, recombinant tau protein with the P301S mutation showed a greatly reduced ability to promote microtubule assembly.
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ranking = 1.6666666666667
keywords = tic
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4/426. Cerebellar and basal ganglion involvement in Langerhans cell histiocytosis.

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a disease of unknown cause characterised by proliferation of histiocytic granulomas in tissues; the primary cerebral manifestation is diabetes insipidus caused by hypothalamic infiltration. We present a patient in whom, except for the absence of high signal on T1 weighting in the posterior pituitary, consistent with central diabetes insipidus, MRI showed no evidence of hypothalamic involvement by histiocytosis, despite the long duration of the disease. However, there was bilateral, symmetrical involvement of the cerebellum and globus pallidus in addition to a calvarial lesion. High signal in the cerebellar white matter on T2-weighted images may represent demyelination, gliosis and cell loss, as previously reported on pathologic examination.
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ranking = 0.33333333333333
keywords = tic
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5/426. magnetic resonance imaging findings in corticobasal degeneration.

    Two women (patient 1, 77 years old, and patient 2, 63 years old) with strong clinical evidence for corticobasal degeneration (CBD) are presented. Patient 2 was in an early stage of the disease with only a mild disability of her left hand. In addition to the clinical characteristics, both patients presented the typical cortical reflex myoclonus. magnetic resonance imaging studies for both patients revealed nearly identical hyperintense lesions somatotopic from the left-hand primary motor cortex (M1), extending to the midline and possibly supplementary motor area (SMA) in patient 2. To our knowledge, this has not been previously described in patients with CBD. These lesions may play a role in the etiology and the development of CBD with involvement of the M1 and may correspond to the underlying pathology of demyelination or gliosis.
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ranking = 4.3401643538318
keywords = tic, motor
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6/426. motor neuron disease-inclusion dementia presenting as cortical-basal ganglionic degeneration.

    The frontotemporal dementias are a group of relatively new and evolving clinical and pathologic entities. The predominant frontal-temporal atrophy causes a variety of clinical syndromes, usually dominated by disturbances in behavior, mood, and speech. The motor neuron disease-inclusion dementia (MNDID) subtype is characterized by the accumulation of specific intraneuronal ubiquitin-immunoreactive inclusions with the complete absence of tau immunoreactivity. We present a patient with the clinical and neuroimaging characteristics of a highly asymmetric neurodegenerative condition distinguished by limb rigidity, bradykinesia, dystonia with an alien limb phenomenon, cortical sensory findings, and limb apraxia. His premorbid diagnosis was cortical-basal ganglionic degeneration but he had the typical histologic features of a frontotemporal dementia of the MNDID subtype.
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ranking = 2.3367488435826
keywords = tic, motor
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7/426. Extrapyramidal symptoms associated with the adjunct of nortriptyline to a venlafaxine-valproic acid combination.

    The onset of extrapyramidal symptoms has been traditionally linked to the prescription of neuroleptic treatment: there are some reports in the international literature describing extrapyramidal effects related to antidepressant. In this paper we present a case under multiple pharmacologic treatment in whom extrapyramidal symptoms developed shortly after the adjunct of nortriptyline to a combination of venlafaxine and valproic acid administered for several months. We describe here the clinical history of this patient, affected by bipolar disorder, type II, and the progressive pharmacologic path in his treatment. Possible hypothesis to explain this evidence are discussed.
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ranking = 0.33333333333333
keywords = tic
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8/426. Dyspraxia in a patient with corticobasal degeneration: the role of visual and tactile inputs to action.

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the roles of visual and tactile information in a dyspraxic patient with corticobasal degeneration (CBD) who showed dramatic facilitation in miming the use of a tool or object when he was given a tool to manipulate; and to study the nature of the praxic and neuropsychological deficits in CBD. methods: The subject had clinically diagnosed CBD, and exhibited alien limb behaviour and striking ideomotor dyspraxia. General neuropsychological evaluation focused on constructional and visuospatial abilities, calculation, verbal fluency, episodic and semantic memory, plus spelling and writing because impairments in this domain were presenting complaints. Four experiments assessed the roles of visual and tactile information in the facilitation of motor performance by tools. Experiment 1 evaluated the patient's performance of six limb transitive actions under six conditions: (1) after he described the relevant tool from memory, (2) after he was shown a line drawing of the tool, (3) after he was shown a real exemplar of the tool, (4) after he watched the experimenter perform the action, (5) while he was holding the tool, and (6) immediately after he had performed the action with the tool but with the tool removed from his grasp. Experiment 2 evaluated the use of the same six tools when the patient had tactile but no visual information (while he was blindfolded). Experiments 3 and 4 assessed performance of actions appropriate to the same six tools when the patient had either neutral or inappropriate tactile feedback-that is, while he was holding a non-tool object or a different tool. RESULTS: Miming of tool use was not facilitated by visual input; moreover, lack of visual information in the blindfolded condition did not reduce performance. The principal positive finding was a dramatic facilitation of the patient's ability to demonstrate object use when he was holding either the appropriate tool or a neutral object. Tools inappropriate to the requested action produced involuntary performance of the stimulus relevant action. CONCLUSIONS: Tactile stimulation was paramount in the facilitation of motor performance in tool use by this patient with CBD. This outcome suggests that tactile information should be included in models which hypothesise modality specific inputs to the action production system. Significant impairments in spelling and letter production that have not previously been reported in CBD have also been documented.
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ranking = 2.6769131974144
keywords = tic, motor
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9/426. Progressive frontal gait disturbance with atypical Alzheimer's disease and corticobasal degeneration.

    OBJECTIVES: The clinical neuropsychological, neuroradiological, and neuropathological description of two patients presenting with a frontal gait disturbance. methods: Clinical case note review, neuropsychological assessment, functional imaging with (15)O(2) and (18)F-fluorodopa PET, and neuropathology. RESULTS: Both patients presented with frontal gait impairment and only later developed more widespread cognitive impairment. In both cases (15)O(2) PET disclosed focal hypometabolism in the medial frontal lobes and in one patient (18)F-fluorodopa uptake into the caudate and putamen was normal. The neuropathological examination in one patient showed Alzheimer's histopathology together with large swollen eosinophilic neurons characteristic of corticobasal degeneration, which were particularly prominent in the medial frontal lobes. CONCLUSION: Focal degeneration of the medial frontal lobes may present as an isolated gait disturbance and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients who present without an obvious structural abnormality on neuroimaging.
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ranking = 2.3333333333333
keywords = tic
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10/426. Parasagittal cerebral injury: magnetic resonance findings.

    Parasagittal cerebral injury is a specific pathologic lesion that can be found in full-term newborn babies suffering from hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. It is defined by the presence of cortical and subcortical white-matter necrosis involving the parasagittal and superomedial areas of the cerebral convexities. We report on two patients who showed parasagittal cerebral injury on magnetic resonance imaging. In both cases antecedents of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy were noted. In one of the patients basal ganglia involvement was also detected by cranial magnetic resonance imaging. In the follow-up studies the presence of upper-limb pyramidal signs and dyspraxia were two of the more pronounced symptoms. We will discuss the usefulness of neuroimaging, especially magnetic resonance imaging with coronal views, in the diagnosis of the parasagittal cerebral injury.
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ranking = 3
keywords = tic
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