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31/35. A new case of beckwith-wiedemann syndrome with an 11p15 duplication of paternal origin [46,XY,-21, der(21), t(11;21)(p15.2;q22.3)pat]

    We present a new case of 11p15 duplication (trisomy 11p15) in a boy (46,XY,-21, der(21), t(11;21)(p15.2;q22.3)] suffering from beckwith-wiedemann syndrome (BWS), whose phenotypically normal father carries a balanced translocation between chromosomes 11 and 21[46,XY, t(11;21)(p15.2;q22.3)]. The paternal grandmother has the same balanced translocation and is also clinically normal. BWS was suspected when the boy was 6 months old because of gigantism, macroglossia, visceromegaly, ear lobe creases and abdominal distention. Apart from the characteristic BWS phenotype, the boy has other features which are almost exclusively observed in 11p trisomy (high forehead with frontal upsweep of hair, wide central nose bridge, slightly beaked nose, chubby cheeks and severe mental retardation). So far, at least eight cases of 11p15 duplication have been described as patients with BWS. In six of these, the duplication was due to inheritance of a translocated or rearranged paternal chromosome. This was also the case in our patient. In the two other previously published cases, the 11p15 duplications were de novo, but in one of these, dna analysis has subsequently shown that the duplication was of paternal origin. We discuss our observations in relation to the above-mentioned previous cases of 11p15 duplication and the possible role of genomic imprinting in the etiology of BWS.
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32/35. Nonimmune fetal hydrops and placentomegaly: diagnosis of familial Wiedemann-Beckwith syndrome with trisomy 11p15 using FISH.

    We have studied a family in which four members of the same generation were affected with Wiedemann-Beckwith syndrome (WBS). trisomy 11p15 was demonstrated using molecular probes in interphase nuclei of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded placenta from a stillborn fetus and in peripheral blood lymphocytes from two liveborn female relatives. Clinical examination showed nonimmune hydrops and placentomegaly in two siblings and multiple phenotypic abnormalities consistent with WBS in the two other relatives. Paternal karyotype of the stillborn infants demonstrated a reciprocal translocation (46,XY,t(10;11) (q26;p15)) explaining the origin of the extra 11p15 material. This study illustrates the advantages of FISH for interphase analysis of chromosome aberrations otherwise not detected even by conventional cytogenetic analysis and documents that nonimmune hydrops associated with placentomegaly may be the presenting features in familial WBS.
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33/35. Paternally inherited duplications of 11p15.5 and beckwith-wiedemann syndrome.

    We present a three generation family in which a father and son have a balanced chromosome translocation between the short arms of chromosomes 5 and 11 (karyotype 46,XY,t(5;11)(p15.3;p15.3)). Two family members have inherited the unbalanced products of this translocation and are trisomic for chromosome 11p15.3-->pter and monosomic for chromosome 5p15.3-->pter (karyotype 46,XY,der(5)t(5;11)(p15.3;p15.3)pat). Paternally derived duplications of 11p15.5 are associated with beckwith-wiedemann syndrome (BWS) and both family members trisomic for 11p15.5 had prenatal overgrowth (birth weights >97th centile), macroglossia, coarse facial features, and broad hands. We review the clinical features of BWS patients who have a paternally derived duplication of 11p15.5 and provide evidence for a distinct pattern of dysmorphic features in those with this chromosome duplication. Interestingly, our family is the fifth unrelated family to be reported with a balanced reciprocal translocation between the short arms of chromosomes 5 and 11. The apparently non-random nature of this particular chromosome translocation is suggestive of sequence homology between the two chromosome regions involved in the translocation.
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34/35. beckwith-wiedemann syndrome in a child with chromosome 18q deletion.

    Molecular genetic investigation of a female infant with beckwith-wiedemann syndrome (BWS) showed loss of IGF2 imprinting but no evidence of uniparental disomy. In addition, a deletion of chromosome 18q22.1 was identified in this infant without clinical features of 18q-syndrome (microcephaly, short stature, hypotonia). The association of a chromosome 18 deletion and BWS may be coincidental or may indicate the location of a trans activating regulator element for maintenance of IGF2 imprinting.
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35/35. Characterization of the breakpoints in unbalanced t(5;11)(p15;p15) constitutional chromosome translocations in two patients with beckwith-wiedemann syndrome using fluorescence in situ hybridisation.

    Although the majority of patients with beckwith-wiedemann syndrome (BWS) have a normal karyotype, the study of those rare patients with a cytogenetic abnormality has given considerable insight into the genetics of this condition. The karyotypic abnormalities found include partial chromosome duplications of paternal origin and maternally derived translocations which usually involve the 11p15 region and provide one of the lines of evidence for the location of the BWS gene(s). Because the extent of the duplicated region in these patients is variable, the phenotypic expression of BWS is presumably due to the presence of a common duplicated region. Two unrelated patients with BWS were both noted to have a similar unbalanced t(5;11)(p15;p14) translocation. The parents in both families were unaffected but both fathers carried a balanced translocation involving the same chromosomes. Since the extent and nature of the duplication apparently determines the complex phenotypes seen in these patients, we undertook a detailed analysis of the extent of the triplicated region using fluorescent in situ hybrisation (FISH). Despite having markedly different phenotypes and presenting in disimilar ways the two patients had apparently identical duplication breakpoints.
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