Cases reported "Biliary Fistula"

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1/34. Segment IV liver cyst with biliary communication following laparoscopic deroofing.

    Simple cysts of the liver rarely have a biliary communication. We record the development of a biliary communication following laparoscopic deroofing of a segment IV simple cyst of liver and document its successful sclerosis with tetracycline.
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2/34. Management of a patient with hepatic-thoracic-pelvic and omental hydatid cysts and post-operative bilio-cutaneous fistula: a case report.

    In humans, most hydatid cysts occur in the liver and 75% of these are single. Our patient was a 31 year-old male. His magnetic resonance imaging (MR) showed one cyst (15 x 20 cm) in the right lobe and three cysts (5 x 6 cm, 8 x 6 cm, and 5 x 5 cm) in the left lobe of the liver, two cysts (4 x 5 cm and 5 x 5 cm) on the greater omentum, and two cysts (15 x 10 and 10 x 10 cm) in the pelvis. The abdomen was entered first by a bilateral subcostal incision and then by a Phennenstiel incision. Partial cystectomy capitonnage was done on the liver cysts; the cysts on the omentum were excised, and the pelvic cysts were enucleated. The cyst in the right lobe of the liver was in communication with a thoracic cyst. An air leak developed from the thoracic cyst which had underwater drainage and bile drainage from the drain in the cavity of the right lobe cyst. Sphincterotomy was done on the seventh post-operative day by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). No significant effect on mean bile output from the fistula occurred. octreotide therapy was initiated, but due to abdominal pain and gas bloating the patient felt and could not tolerate, it was stopped on the fourth day; besides, it had no decreasing effect on bile output during the 4 days. Because air and bile leak continued and he had bile stained sputum, he was operated on on post-operative day 18. By right thoracotomy, the cavity and the leaking branches were closed. By right subcostal incision, cholecystectomy and T-tube drainage of the choledochus were done. On post-operative day 30, he was sent home with the T-tube and the drain in the cavity. After 3 months post-operatively, a second T-tube cholangiography was done, and a narrowing in the distal right hepatic duct and a minimal narrowing in the distal left hepatic duct were exposed. Balloon dilatation was done by way of a T-tube. Bile drainage ceased. There was no collection in the cavity in follow-up CT scanning, so the drain in the cavity, and the drainage catheter in the right hepatic duct were extracted. Evaluation of the biliary ductal system is important in bilio-cutaneous fistulas, and balloon dilatation is very effective in fistulas due to narrowing of the ducts.
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3/34. Bronchobiliary fistula after hemihepatectomy: cholangiopancreaticography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance cholangiography findings.

    A bronchobiliary fistula (BBF), which is defined by an abnormal communication between the biliary system and the bronchial tree, is an uncommon complication after hemihepatectomy, trauma, hydatid disease, choledocholithiasis and other causes of biliary obstruction. We report the case of a 56-year-old man with colon cancer, who developed a BBF 2 months after right hemihepatectomy for liver metastases. The findings at endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography (ERCP), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC) included a stricture of the common bile duct and biliary leakage from the liver resection plane with biliary infiltration of the right lower lobe of the lung. The patient was treated successfully by endoscopic insertion of a biliary plastic stent which bridged the stricture and lead to closure of the fistula.
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4/34. Periampullary choledochoduodenal fistula in ampullary carcinoma.

    Most patients with ampullary carcinoma have obstructive jaundice without cholangitis. We experienced a patient with ampullary carcinoma who presented with obstructive jaundice and cholangitis, probably because of an accompanying periampullary choledochoduodenal fistula. A 77-year-old Japanese man had jaundice, high fever, and upper abdominal pain and was diagnosed, at another hospital, with obstructive cholangitis. On admission to our hospital, his symptoms and signs had subsided spontaneously. Abdominal ultrasonography showed cholecystolithiasis and dilatation of the common bile duct. duodenoscopy showed an ulcerating tumor at the oral prominence of the ampulla of vater and a periampullary choledochoduodenal fistula at the bottom of the ulcer. biopsy from the fistula showed well differentiated adenocarcinoma. With a diagnosis of ampullary carcinoma with fistula formation, the patient underwent pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy. The diagnosis was confirmed by histology. This communication presents a unique case of ampullary carcinoma that caused obstructive jaundice, which subsided spontaneously but was associated with cholangitis caused by the divergent effects of the periampullary choledochoduodenal fistula formed by the carcinoma.
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5/34. Asymptomatic arterio-biliary fistula after transarterial chemoembolization of metastatic liver tumors.

    Arterio-biliary fistula is a rare clinical condition resulting from various causes such as iatrogenic injury and ischemic change of the bile duct. Serious clinical symptoms occur due to the shunting of high-pressure blood from the hepatic artery into the bile duct. Here we report a case of arterio-biliary fistula demonstrated by angiographic examinations. The communication appeared after repeat transarterial chemoembolization of metastatic liver tumors. The interesting point of this case was that the patient did not have any obvious clinical symptoms related to the fistula. The mechanisms responsible for this rare manifestation are discussed.
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6/34. Biliary-bronchial fistula demonstrated by endoscopic retrograde cholangiography.

    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography is valuable in the evaluation of biliary tract disorders. A 50-year-old Italian woman developed biloptysis 1 year after cholecystectomy because of intrabiliary rupture of a hydatid cyst with secondary infection, which resulted in intrathoracic rupture and communication with the bronchial tree. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography showed the cause and pathway of the fistulous tract by outlining the biliary tree, abscess cavity and communication with the right upper lobe bronchus. This technique appears to be well suited to the investigation of patients with biliary-bronchial fistula.
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7/34. Bullets and biliptysis.

    Biliptysis is a dramatic physical finding which suggests the presence of a direct communication (fistula) between the biliary and bronchial tree. We report a bronchial biliary fistula resulting from penetrating thoracoabdominal trauma and the use of positive-pressure ventilation to obtain initial fistula control prior to definitive surgical repair.
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8/34. ethanol injection therapy of an isolated bile duct associated with a biliary-cutaneous fistula.

    Bile leakage after hepatic resection often results in the formation of a biliary-cutaneous fistula. Such a fistula, when caused by an isolated bile duct in the remnant liver, can be intractable. We report a successful case of ethanol injection therapy of an isolated bile duct. A 73-year-old man underwent right hepatic resection for hepatocellular carcinoma. Bile leakage occurred after surgery, and the patient developed a biliary-cutaneous fistula. Fistulography revealed an isolated bile duct in the remnant portion of the caudate lobe without communication to the main biliary system. As conservative management with simple drainage was ineffective, injection therapy with ethanol was performed with a balloon occlusion catheter. After 11 therapy sessions, the bile duct was eradicated, and the biliary- cutaneous fistula was completely healed. The post-treatment course was uneventful. ethanol injection therapy can be a choice for management of patients with a biliary fistula caused by an isolated bile duct.
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9/34. Percutaneous sclerotherapy for intractable external biliary fistula after hepatectomy.

    A 59-year-old man was diagnosed with cholangitis and a liver abscess caused by intrahepatic stones and underwent a hepatectomy of the left lobe and a side-to-side hepaticojejunostomy. After the operation, the patient developed an intractable external biliary fistula in the left remnant medial region. For the purpose of closing the fistula as a conservative treatment, an injection of 95% dehydrated ethanol was started after confirming the absence of any communication with the central bile duct; 1.5-5 ml was used for each injection, and the tube was clamped for 2 hours after injection. The excretion of bile juice decreased from the second injection, the excretion became serous, and the fistula completely closed after about 2 months without any particular complications. Percutaneous sclerotherapy by the injection of ethanol was found to be useful for closing a noncommunicating external biliary fistula.
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10/34. Liver cyst with biliary communication successfully treated with laparoscopic deroofing: a case report.

    A 71-year-old Japanese woman complained of right upper abdominal fullness and pain. Computed tomography revealed a huge cyst in the right lobe of the liver, measuring 16 cm in diameter. She underwent laparoscopic deroofing of the liver cyst. On operation, needle aspiration of the cyst yielded clear serous fluid without any bile contamination. However, after the cyst was deroofed with laparoscopic coagulating shears, bile leakage was recognized from a tiny orifice in the cyst cavity. A catheter was inserted via the orifice for cholangiography, which demonstrated a communication with the biliary tract. The orifice was easily closed with a laparoscopic suturing device. Operation time was 5 hours and 30 minutes, and blood loss was 300 grams. Pathological examination of the liver cyst was consistent with a simple cyst. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient has had no recurrence to date at 13 months. Laparoscopic deroofing is a recommended treatment for a liver cyst even in the presence of cystobiliary communication.
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